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RANJEVA Marie-Pierre

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Journal Article

  • DE LEENER B., FONOV V. S., COLLINS D. L., CALLOT V., STIKOV N., COHEN-ADAD J. “PAM50: Unbiased multimodal template of the brainstem and spinal cord aligned with the ICBM152 space.”. NeuroImage [En ligne]. 15 January 2018. Vol. 165, p. 170-179. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Template-based analysis of multi-parametric MRI data of the spinal cord sets the foundation for standardization and reproducibility, thereby helping the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases. While MRI templates of the spinal cord have been recently introduced, none of them cover the entire spinal cord. In this study, we introduced an unbiased multimodal MRI template of the spinal cord and the brainstem, called PAM50, which is anatomically compatible with the ICBM152 brain template and uses the same coordinate system. The PAM50 template is based on 50 healthy subjects, covers the full spinal cord (C1 to L2 vertebral levels) and the brainstem, is available for T1-, T2-and T2*-weighted MRI contrasts and includes a probabilistic atlas of the gray matter and white matter tracts. Template creation accuracy was assessed by computing the mean and maximum distance error between each individual spinal cord centerline and the PAM50 centerline, after registration to the template. Results showed high accuracy for both T1- (mean = 0.37 ± 0.06 mm; max = 1.39 ± 0.58 mm) and T2-weighted (mean = 0.11 ± 0.03 mm; max = 0.71 ± 0.27 mm) contrasts. Additionally, the preservation of the spinal cord topology during the template creation process was verified by comparing the cross-sectional area (CSA) profile, averaged over all subjects, and the CSA profile of the PAM50 template. The fusion of the PAM50 and ICBM152 templates will facilitate group and multi-center studies of combined brain and spinal cord MRI, and enable the use of existing atlases of the brainstem compatible with the ICBM space.
    Mots-clés : Atlas, crmbm, ICBM, MRI, spinal cord, Template.

  • FOURé A., OGIER A. C., LE TROTER A., VILMEN C., FEIWEIER T., GUYE M., GONDIN J., BESSON P., BENDAHAN D. “Diffusion Properties and 3D Architecture of Human Lower Leg Muscles Assessed with Ultra-High-Field-Strength Diffusion-Tensor MR Imaging and Tractography: Reproducibility and Sensitivity to Sex Difference and Intramuscular Variability.”. Radiology [En ligne]. 30 January 2018. p. 171330. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Purpose To demonstrate the reproducibility of the diffusion properties and three-dimensional structural organization measurements of the lower leg muscles by using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) assessed with ultra-high-field-strength (7.0-T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and tractography of skeletal muscle fibers. On the basis of robust statistical mapping analyses, this study also aimed at determining the sensitivity of the measurements to sex difference and intramuscular variability. Materials and Methods All examinations were performed with ethical review board approval; written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Reproducibility of diffusion tensor indexes assessment including eigenvalues, mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy (FA) as well as muscle volume and architecture (ie, fiber length and pennation angle) were characterized in lower leg muscles (n = 8). Intramuscular variability and sex differences were characterized in young healthy men and women (n = 10 in each group). Student t test, statistical parametric mapping, correlation coefficients (Spearman rho and Pearson product-moment) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used for statistical data analysis. Results High reproducibility of measurements (mean CV ± standard deviation, 4.6% ± 3.8) was determined in diffusion properties and architectural parameters. Significant sex differences were detected in FA (4.2% in women for the entire lower leg; P = .001) and muscle volume (21.7% in men for the entire lower leg; P = .008), whereas architecture parameters were almost identical across sex. Additional differences were found independently of sex in diffusion properties and architecture along several muscles of the lower leg. Conclusion The high-spatial-resolution DTI assessed with 7.0-T MR imaging allows a reproducible assessment of structural organization of superficial and deep muscles, giving indirect information on muscle function.©RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

  • FOURNELY M., PETIT Y., WAGNAC É., LAURIN J., CALLOT V., ARNOUX P. - J. “High-speed video analysis improves the accuracy of spinal cord compression measurement in a mouse contusion model.”. Journal of Neuroscience Methods [En ligne]. 1 January 2018. Vol. 293, p. 1-5. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Animal models of spinal cord injuries aim to utilize controlled and reproducible conditions. However, a literature review reveals that mouse contusion studies using equivalent protocols may show large disparities in the observed impact force vs. cord compression relationship. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of bias in these measurements. The specific objective was to improve spinal cord compression measurements using a video-based setup to detect the impactor-spinal cord time-to-contact. NEW METHOD: A force-controlled 30kDyn unilateral contusion at C4 vertebral level was performed in six mice with the Infinite Horizon impactor (IH). High-speed video was used to determine the time-to-contact between the impactor tip and the spinal cord and to compute the related displacement of the tip into the tissue: the spinal cord compression and the compression ratio. RESULTS & COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): Delayed time-to-contact detection with the IH device led to an underestimation of the cord compression. Compression values indicated by the IH were 64% lower than those based on video analysis (0.33mm vs. 0.88mm). Consequently, the mean compression ratio derived from the device was underestimated when compared to the value derived from video analysis (22% vs. 61%). CONCLUSIONS: Default time-to-contact detection from the IH led to significant errors in spinal cord compression assessment. Accordingly, this may explain some of the reported data discrepancies in the literature. The proposed setup could be implemented by users of contusion devices to improve the quantative description of the primary injury inflicted to the spinal cord.
    Mots-clés : Compression ratio, Contusion device, crmbm, High-speed video analysis, Mouse model, snc, Spinal cord injury.

  • GROS C., DE LEENER B., DUPONT S. M., MARTIN A. R., FEHLINGS M. G., BAKSHI R., TUMMALA S., AUCLAIR V., MCLAREN D. G., CALLOT V., COHEN-ADAD J., SDIKA M. “Automatic spinal cord localization, robust to MRI contrasts using global curve optimization.”. Medical Image Analysis [En ligne]. February 2018. Vol. 44, p. 215-227. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : During the last two decades, MRI has been increasingly used for providing valuable quantitative information about spinal cord morphometry, such as quantification of the spinal cord atrophy in various diseases. However, despite the significant improvement of MR sequences adapted to the spinal cord, automatic image processing tools for spinal cord MRI data are not yet as developed as for the brain. There is nonetheless great interest in fully automatic and fast processing methods to be able to propose quantitative analysis pipelines on large datasets without user bias. The first step of most of these analysis pipelines is to detect the spinal cord, which is challenging to achieve automatically across the broad range of MRI contrasts, field of view, resolutions and pathologies. In this paper, a fully automated, robust and fast method for detecting the spinal cord centerline on MRI volumes is introduced. The algorithm uses a global optimization scheme that attempts to strike a balance between a probabilistic localization map of the spinal cord center point and the overall spatial consistency of the spinal cord centerline (i.e. the rostro-caudal continuity of the spinal cord). Additionally, a new post-processing feature, which aims to automatically split brain and spine regions is introduced, to be able to detect a consistent spinal cord centerline, independently from the field of view. We present data on the validation of the proposed algorithm, known as "OptiC", from a large dataset involving 20 centers, 4 contrasts (T2-weighted n = 287, T1-weighted n = 120, T2∗-weighted n = 307, diffusion-weighted n = 90), 501 subjects including 173 patients with a variety of neurologic diseases. Validation involved the gold-standard centerline coverage, the mean square error between the true and predicted centerlines and the ability to accurately separate brain and spine regions. Overall, OptiC was able to cover 98.77% of the gold-standard centerline, with a mean square error of 1.02 mm. OptiC achieved superior results compared to a state-of-the-art spinal cord localization technique based on the Hough transform, especially on pathological cases with an averaged mean square error of 1.08 mm vs. 13.16 mm (Wilcoxon signed-rank test p-value < .01). Images containing brain regions were identified with a 99% precision, on which brain and spine regions were separated with a distance error of 9.37 mm compared to ground-truth. Validation results on a challenging dataset suggest that OptiC could reliably be used for subsequent quantitative analyses tasks, opening the door to more robust analysis on pathological cases.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Detection, Global optimization, Machine learning, MRI, Segmentation, spinal cord.

  • MACIA M., PECCHI E., DESROIS M., LAN C., VILMEN C., PORTHA B., BERNARD M., BENDAHAN D., GIANNESINI B. “Exercise training impacts exercise tolerance and bioenergetics in gastrocnemius muscle of non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat in vivo.”. Biochimie [En ligne]. 27 February 2018. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The functional and bioenergetics impact of regular physical activity upon type-2 diabetic skeletal muscle independently of confounding factors of overweight remains undocumented. Here, gastrocnemius muscle energy fluxes, mitochondrial capacity and mechanical performance were assessed noninvasively and longitudinally in non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and dynamic 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) throughout a 6-min fatiguing bout of exercise performed before, in the middle (4-week) and at the end of an 8-week training protocol consisting in 60-min daily run on a treadmill. The training protocol reduced plasmatic insulin level (-61%) whereas blood glucose and non-esterified fatty acids levels remained unaffected, thereby indicating an improvement of insulin sensitivity. It also increased muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity (+45%) but this increase did not enhance oxidative ATP synthesis capacity in working muscle in vivo while glycolytic ATP production was increased (+33%). On the other hand, the training protocol impaired maximal force-generating capacity (-9%), total amount of force produced (-12%) and increased ATP cost of contraction (+32%) during the fatiguing exercise. Importantly, these deleterious effects were transiently worsened in the middle of the 8-week period, in association with reduced oxidative capacity and increased basal [Pi]/[PCr] ratio (an in vivo biomarker of muscle damage). These data demonstrate that the beneficial effect of regular training on insulin sensitivity in non-obese diabetic rat occurs separately from any improvement in muscle mitochondrial function and might be linked to an increased capacity for metabolizing glucose through anaerobic process in exercising muscle.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Diabetes, Mitochondrial capacity, msk, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Regular physical activity, Skeletal muscle function.

  • MASSIRE A., RASOANANDRIANINA H., TASO M., GUYE M., RANJEVA J. - P., FEIWEIER T., CALLOT V. “Feasibility of single-shot multi-level multi-angle diffusion tensor imaging of the human cervical spinal cord at 7T.”. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine [En ligne]. 25 January 2018. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which is frequently used to characterize microstructure impairments in many spinal cord diseases at clinical fields, may benefit from 7T investigations. Yet, it presents specific technical challenges, such as increased magnetic susceptibility-induced image distortions. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were scanned at 7T using a prototype diffusion multi-slice multi-angle (MSMA) single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence developed to explore the whole cervical spinal cord while limiting the partial volume effects related to the cord curvature. To mitigate the increased susceptibility-induced distortions encountered at 7T, a reverse phase-encoding strategy was also used. Images acquired from C1-to-C7 were registered to the AMU40 template to automatically extract DTI metrics in gray matter/white matter regions of interest. Effects of B1+ inhomogeneities on the DTI metrics and repeatability of the measurements were also investigated. Lastly, a DTI acquisition with a 400-µm in-plane resolution was acquired on one volunteer to push forward 7T potentialities. RESULTS: The MSMA sequence allowed accessing to high-resolution axial diffusion images sampling the whole cord within a single acquisition. DTI metrics were found in agreement with literature at lower field, stable along a 50-120% relative B1+ variation range, with a mean inter-scan coefficient of variation of 8%. The two--fold spatial-resolution increase of the additional DTI acquisition enabled main white matter tracts visualization on a single-subject basis. CONCLUSION: Although C7-level imaging needs some improvement, this preliminary study shows that transverse 7T DTI of the whole cervical spinal cord is feasible, laying the groundwork for improved multi-parametric MR investigations and microstructure characterization of the spinal cord. Magn Reson Med, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
    Mots-clés : 7T, crmbm, diffusion tensor imaging, multi-slice multi-angle acquisitions, snc, spinal cord, ultra-high-field MRI.

  • PROIX T., JIRSA V. K., BARTOLOMEI F., GUYE M., TRUCCOLO W. “Predicting the spatiotemporal diversity of seizure propagation and termination in human focal epilepsy.”. Nature Communications [En ligne]. 14 March 2018. Vol. 9, n°1, p. 1088. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Recent studies have shown that seizures can spread and terminate across brain areas via a rich diversity of spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, while the location of the seizure onset area is usually invariant across seizures in an individual patient, the source of traveling (2-3 Hz) spike-and-wave discharges during seizures can either move with the slower propagating ictal wavefront or remain stationary at the seizure onset area. Furthermore, although many focal seizures terminate synchronously across brain areas, some evolve into distinct ictal clusters and terminate asynchronously. Here, we introduce a unifying perspective based on a new neural field model of epileptic seizure dynamics. Two main mechanisms, the co-existence of wave propagation in excitable media and coupled-oscillator dynamics, together with the interaction of multiple time scales, account for the reported diversity. We confirm our predictions in seizures and tractography data obtained from patients with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our results contribute toward patient-specific seizure modeling.

  • RIDLEY B., NAGEL A. M., BYDDER M., MAAROUF A., STELLMANN J. - P., GHERIB S., VERNEUIL J., VIOUT P., GUYE M., RANJEVA J. - P., ZAARAOUI W. “Distribution of brain sodium long and short relaxation times and concentrations: a multi-echo ultra-high field23Na MRI study.”. Scientific Reports [En ligne]. 12 March 2018. Vol. 8, n°1, p. 4357. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Sodium (23Na) MRI proffers the possibility of novel information for neurological research but also particular challenges. Uncertainty can arise in in vivo23Na estimates from signal losses given the rapidity of T2* decay due to biexponential relaxation with both short (T2*short) and long (T2*long) components. We build on previous work by characterising the decay curve directly via multi-echo imaging at 7 T in 13 controls with the requisite number, distribution and range to assess the distribution of both in vivo T2*shortand T2*longand in variation between grey and white matter, and subregions. By modelling the relationship between signal and reference concentration and applying it to in vivo23Na-MRI signal,23Na concentrations and apparent transverse relaxation times of different brain regions were measured for the first time. Relaxation components and concentrations differed substantially between regions of differing tissue composition, suggesting sensitivity of multi-echo23Na-MRI toward features of tissue composition. As such, these results raise the prospect of multi-echo23Na-MRI as an adjunct source of information on biochemical mechanisms in both physiological and pathophysiological states.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, snc.

  • TULEASCA C., NAJDENOVSKA E., RÉGIS J., WITJAS T., GIRARD N., CHAMPOUDRY J., FAOUZI M., THIRAN J. - P., BACH CUADRA M., LEVIVIER M., VAN DE VILLE D. “Pretherapeutic functional neuroimaging predicts tremor arrest after thalamotomy.”. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica [En ligne]. 7 January 2018. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: Essential tremor (ET) represents the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy) or alternatively minimally invasive high-focused ultrasound or radiosurgery. All aim at same target, thalamic ventro-intermediate nucleus (Vim). METHODS: The study included a cohort of 17 consecutive patients, with ET, treated only with left unilateral stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T) between September 2014 and August 2015. The mean time to tremor improvement was 3.32 months (SD 2.7, 0.5-10). Neuroimaging data were collected at baseline (n = 17). Standard tremor scores, including activities of daily living (ADL) and tremor score on treated hand (TSTH), were completed pretherapeutically and 1 year later. We further correlate these scores with baseline inter-connectivity in twenty major large-scale brain networks. RESULTS: We report as predictive three networks, with the interconnected statistically significant clusters: primary motor cortex interconnected with inferior olivary nucleus, bilateral thalamus interconnected with motor cerebellum lobule V2 (ADL), and anterior default-mode network interconnected with Brodmann area 103 (TSTH). For all, more positive pretherapeutic interconnectivity correlated with higher drop in points on the respective scores. Age, disease duration, or time-to-response after SRS-T were not statistically correlated with pretherapeutic brain connectivity measures (P > .05). The same applied to pretherapeutic tremor scores, after using the same methodology described above. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have clinical implications for predicting clinical response after SRS-T. Here, using pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging and data processing without prior hypothesis, we show that pretherapeutic network(s) interconnectivity strength predicts tremor arrest in drug-naïve ET, following stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy.
    Mots-clés : essential tremor, fMRI, resting state, snc, stereotactic radiosurgery, Thalamotomy.

  • TULEASCA C., NAJDENOVSKA E., RÉGIS J., WITJAS T., GIRARD N., CHAMPOUDRY J., FAOUZI M., THIRAN J. - P., CUADRA M. B., LEVIVIER M., VAN DE VILLE D. “Clinical response to Vim's thalamic stereotactic radiosurgery for essential tremor is associated with distinctive functional connectivity patterns.”. Acta Neurochirurgica [En ligne]. March 2018. Vol. 160, n°3, p. 611-624. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T. METHODS: We included 17 consecutive patients treated with left unilateral SRS-T in Marseille, France. Tremor score evaluation and rs-fMRI were acquired at baseline and 1 year after SRS-T. Resting-state data (34 scans) were analyzed without a priori hypothesis, in Lausanne, Switzerland. Based on degree of improvement in TSTH, to consider SRS-T at least as effective as medication, we separated two groups: 1, ≤ 50% (n = 6, 35.3%); 2, > 50% (n = 11, 64.7%). They did not differ statistically by age (p = 0.86), duration of symptoms (p = 0.41), or lesion volume at 1 year (p = 0.06). RESULTS: We report TSTH improvement correlated with interconnectivity strength between salience network with the left claustrum and putamen, as well as between bilateral motor cortices, frontal eye fields and left cerebellum lobule VI with right visual association area (the former also with lesion volume). Longitudinal changes showed additional associations in interconnectivity strength between right dorsal attention network with ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex and a reminiscent salience network with fusiform gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: Brain connectivity measured by resting-state fMRI relates to clinical response after SRS-T. Relevant networks are visual, motor, and attention. Interconnectivity between visual and motor areas is a novel finding, revealing implication in movement sensory guidance.
    Mots-clés : Essential tremor, fMRI, Independent component analysis, Radiosurgery, Resting-state, Thalamotomy, Ventro-intermediate nucleus.

  • TULEASCA C., NAJDENOVSKA E., RÉGIS J., WITJAS T., GIRARD N., CHAMPOUDRY J., FAOUZI M., THIRAN J. - P., CUADRA M. B., LEVIVIER M., VAN DE VILLE D. “Ventro-lateral motor thalamus abnormal connectivity in essential tremor before and after thalamotomy: a resting-state fMRI study.”. World Neurosurgery [En ligne]. 20 February 2018. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventro-lateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T), and compared against healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 17 consecutive patients and 10 HC were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using ventro-lateral ventral (VLV) nucleus as region-of-interest (ROI), extracted using automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion MRI. Temporal correlations of VLV at whole brain level were evaluated by comparing drug-naïve ET with HC, and longitudinally, 1 year after SRS-T. Thalamotomy volume was always located inside VLV, and did not correlate with any of FC measures (p>0.05). This suggested presence of longitudinal changes in VLV FC independently of thalamotomy volume. RESULTS: Pretherapeutic ET displayed altered VLV FC with left primary sensory-motor cortex, pedunculopontine nucleus, dorsal anterior cingulate, left visual association and left superior parietal areas. Pretherapeutic negative FC with primary somatosensory cortex and pedunculopontine nucleus correlated with poorer baseline tremor scores (Spearmann=0.04 and 0.01). Longitudinal study displayed changes within right dorsal attention (frontal eye-fields and posterior parietal) and salience (anterior insula) networks, as well as areas involved in hand movement planning or language production. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that ET and HC differ in their VLV FC to primary somatosensory and supplementary motor, visual association, or brainstem areas (pedunculopontine nucleus). Longitudinal changes display reorganization of dorsal attention and salience networks after thalamotomy. Beside attentional gateway, they are also known for their major role in facilitating a rapid access to the motor system.
    Mots-clés : essential tremor, fMRI, motor thalamus, resting-state, snc, stereotactic radiosurgery, thalamotomy, ventro-intermediate nucleus.

  • TULEASCA C., RÉGIS J., NAJDENOVSKA E., WITJAS T., GIRARD N., CHAMPOUDRY J., FAOUZI M., THIRAN J. - P., CUADRA M. B., LEVIVIER M., VAN DE VILLE D. “Pretherapeutic Functional Imaging Allows Prediction of Head Tremor Arrest After Thalamotomy for Essential Tremor: The Role of Altered Interconnectivity Between Thalamolimbic and Supplementary Motor Circuits.”. World Neurosurgery [En ligne]. 2 February 2018. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: To correlate pretherapeutic resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures with pretherapeutic head tremor presence and/or further improvement 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T) for essential tremor (ET). METHODS: We prospectively collected head tremor scores (range, 0-3) and rs-fMRI data for a cohort of 17 consecutive ET patients in pretherapeutic and 1 year after SRS-T states. We additionally acquired rs-fMRI data for a healthy control (HC) group (n = 12). Group-level independent component analysis (n = 17 for pretherapeutic rs-fMRI) was applied to decompose neuroimaging data into 20 large-scale brain networks using a standard approach. Through spatial regression, we projected 1 year after SRS-T and HC rs-fMRI time points, on the same 20 brain networks. RESULTS: Pretherapeutic interconnectivity (IC) strength between the network including bilateral thalamus and limbic system with left supplementary motor area predicted head tremor improvement at 1 year after SRS-T (family-wise corrected P < 0.001, cluster size Kc = 146). For the statistically significant cluster, IC strength was strongest in HCs (mean, 4.6; median, 3.8) compared with pre- (mean, 0.1; median, 0.2) or posttherapeutic (mean, -0.2; median, 0.09) states. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline measures of IC between bilateral thalamus and limbic system with left supplementary motor area may predict head tremor arrest after thalamotomy. However, procedures such as SRS-T, for this particular clinical feature, do not align patients to HCs in terms of functional brain connectivity. We postulate that supplementary motor area is modulating head tremor appearance, by abnormal connectivity with the thalamolimbic system.
    Mots-clés : Essential tremor, fMRI, Head tremor, Resting state, Stereotactic radiosurgery, Thalamotomy, Ventrointermediate nucleus.

  • VAN OBBERGHEN E., MCHINDA S., LE TROTER A., PREVOST V. H., VIOUT P., GUYE M., VARMA G., ALSOP D. C., RANJEVA J. - P., PELLETIER J., GIRARD O., DUHAMEL G. “Evaluation of the Sensitivity of Inhomogeneous Magnetization Transfer (ihMT) MRI for Multiple Sclerosis.”. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology [En ligne]. 22 February 2018. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer is a new endogenous MR imaging contrast mechanism that has demonstrated high specificity for myelin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhomogeneous magnetization transfer is sensitive to pathology in a population of patients with relapsing-remitting MS in a way that both differs from and complements conventional magnetization transfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective MR imaging research study, whose protocol included anatomic imaging, standard magnetization transfer, and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer imaging. Magnetization transfer and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratios measured in normal-appearing brain tissue and in MS lesions of patients were compared with values measured in control subjects. The potential association of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratio variations with the clinical scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale) of patients was further evaluated. RESULTS: The magnetization transfer ratio and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratio measured in the thalami and frontal, occipital, and temporal WM of patients with MS were lower compared with those of controls (P< .05). The mean inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratio measured in lesions was lower than that in normal-appearing WM (P< .05). Significant (P< .05) negative correlations were found between the clinical scores and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratio measured in normal-appearing WM structures. Weaker nonsignificant correlation trends were found for the magnetization transfer ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of the inhomogeneous magnetization transfer technique for MS was highlighted by the reduction in the inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratio in MS lesions and in normal-appearing WM of patients compared with controls. Stronger correlations with the Expanded Disability Status Scale score were obtained with the inhomogeneous magnetization transfer ratio compared with the standard magnetization transfer ratio, which may be explained by the higher specificity of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer for myelin.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, snc.

  • ZHOU Z., HAN F., YU S., YU D., RAPACCHI S., SONG H. K., WANG D. J. J., HU P., YAN L. “Accelerated noncontrast-enhanced 4-dimensional intracranial MR angiography using golden-angle stack-of-stars trajectory and compressed sensing with magnitude subtraction.”. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine [En ligne]. February 2018. Vol. 79, n°2, p. 867-878. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and performance of compressed sensing (CS) with magnitude subtraction regularization in accelerating non-contrast-enhanced dynamic intracranial MR angiography (NCE-dMRA). METHODS: A CS algorithm was introduced in NCE-dMRA by exploiting the sparsity of the magnitude difference of the control and label images. The NCE-dMRA data were acquired using golden-angle stack-of-stars trajectory on six healthy volunteers and one patient with arteriovenous fistula. Images were reconstructed using (i) the proposed magnitude-subtraction CS (MS-CS); (ii) complex-subtraction CS; (iii) independent CS; and (iv) view-sharing with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC). The dMRA image quality was compared across the four reconstruction strategies. The proposed MS-CS method was further compared with KWIC for temporal fidelity of depicting dynamic flow. RESULTS: The proposed MS-CS method was able to reconstruct NCE-dMRA images with detailed vascular structures and clean background. It provided better subjective image quality than the other two CS strategies (P < 0.05). Compared with KWIC, MS-CS showed similar image quality, but reduced temporal blurring in delineating the fine distal arteries. CONCLUSIONS: The MS-CS method is a promising CS technique for accelerating NCE-dMRA acquisition without compromising image quality and temporal fidelity. Magn Reson Med 79:867-878, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
    Mots-clés : arterial spin labeling, compressed sensing, KWIC, magnitude subtraction, noncontrast MR angiography, view sharing.


Journal Article

  • ALBI A., PASTERNAK O., MINATI L., MARIZZONI M., BARTRES-FAZ D., BARGALLO N., BOSCH B., ROSSINI P. M., MARRA C., MUELLER B., FIEDLER U., WILTFANG J., ROCCATAGLIATA L., PICCO A., NOBILI F. M., BLIN O., SEIN J., RANJEVA J. - P., DIDIC M., BOMBOIS S., LOPES R., BORDET R., GROS-DAGNAC H., PAYOUX P., ZOCCATELLI G., ALESSANDRINI F., BELTRAMELLO A., FERRETTI A., CAULO M., AIELLO M., CAVALIERE C., SORICELLI A., PARNETTI L., TARDUCCI R., FLORIDI P., TSOLAKI M., CONSTANTINIDIS M., DREVELEGAS A., FRISONI G., JOVICICH J. “Free water elimination improves test-retest reproducibility of diffusion tensor imaging indices in the brain: A longitudinal multisite study of healthy elderly subjects.”. Human Brain Mapping [En ligne]. January 2017. Vol. 38, n°1, p. 12-26. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Free water elimination (FWE) in brain diffusion MRI has been shown to improve tissue specificity in human white matter characterization both in health and in disease. Relative to the classical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model, FWE is also expected to increase sensitivity to microstructural changes in longitudinal studies. However, it is not clear if these two models differ in their test-retest reproducibility. This study compares a bi-tensor model for FWE with DTI by extending a previous longitudinal-reproducibility 3T multisite study (10 sites, 7 different scanner models) of 50 healthy elderly participants (55-80 years old) scanned in two sessions at least 1 week apart. We computed the reproducibility of commonly used DTI metrics (FA: fractional anisotropy, MD: mean diffusivity, RD: radial diffusivity, and AXD: axial diffusivity), derived either using a DTI model or a FWE model. The DTI metrics were evaluated over 48 white-matter regions of the JHU-ICBM-DTI-81 white-matter labels atlas, and reproducibility errors were assessed. We found that relative to the DTI model, FWE significantly reduced reproducibility errors in most areas tested. In particular, for the FA and MD metrics, there was an average reduction of approximately 1% in the reproducibility error. The reproducibility scores did not significantly differ across sites. This study shows that FWE improves sensitivity and is thus promising for clinical applications, with the potential to identify more subtle changes. The increased reproducibility allows for smaller sample size or shorter trials in studies evaluating biomarkers of disease progression or treatment effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:12-26, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : alzheimers-disease, brain diffusion tensor imaging, cerebral white-matter, false discovery rate, free-water imaging, healthy elderly, longitudinal, MRI, multisite diffusion MRI, parkinsons-disease, reliability, Schizophrenia, snc, spatial statistics, substantia-nigra, test-retest reproducibility, tracking.

  • ALLEN L. A., HARPER R. M., KUMAR R., GUYE M., OGREN J. A., LHATOO S. D., LEMIEUX L., SCOTT C. A., VOS S. B., RANI S., DIEHL B. “Dysfunctional Brain Networking among Autonomic Regulatory Structures in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients at High Risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy.”. Frontiers in Neurology [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 8, p. 544. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is common among young people with epilepsy. Individuals who are at high risk of SUDEP exhibit regional brain structural and functional connectivity (FC) alterations compared with low-risk patients. However, less is known about network-based FC differences among critical cortical and subcortical autonomic regulatory brain structures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients at high risk of SUDEP. METHODS: 32 TLE patients were risk-stratified according to the following clinical criteria: age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and presence of nocturnal seizures, resulting in 14 high-risk and 18 low-risk cases. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signal time courses were extracted from 11 bilateral cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in autonomic and other regulatory processes. After computing all pairwise correlations, FC matrices were analyzed using the network-based statistic. FC strength among the 11 brain regions was compared between the high- and low-risk patients. Increases and decreases in FC were sought, using high-risk > low-risk and low-risk > high-risk contrasts (with covariates age, gender, lateralization of epilepsy, and presence of hippocampal sclerosis). RESULTS: High-risk TLE patients showed a subnetwork with significantly reduced FC (t = 2.5, p = 0.029) involving the thalamus, brain stem, anterior cingulate, putamen and amygdala, and a second subnetwork with significantly elevated FC (t = 2.1, p = 0.031), which extended to medial/orbital frontal cortex, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, subcallosal cortex, brain stem, thalamus, caudate, and putamen. CONCLUSION: TLE patients at high risk of SUDEP showed widespread FC differences between key autonomic regulatory brain regions compared to those at low risk. The altered FC revealed here may help to shed light on the functional correlates of autonomic disturbances in epilepsy and mechanisms involved in SUDEP. Furthermore, these findings represent possible objective biomarkers which could help to identify high-risk patients and enhance SUDEP risk stratification via the use of non-invasive neuroimaging, which would require validation in larger cohorts, with extension to patients with other epilepsies and subjects who succumb to SUDEP.
    Mots-clés : Functional connectivity, graph theory, hippocampus, insula, resting state, snc.

  • ARMAND M., BERNARD J. Y., FORHAN A., HEUDE B., CHARLES M. - A., EDEN MOTHER-CHILD COHORT STUDY GROUP. “Maternal nutritional determinants of colostrum fatty acids in the EDEN mother-child cohort.”. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) [En ligne]. 21 October 2017. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND & AIMS: Programming of infant development and later health may depend on early-milk polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents, that are very variable between women for reasons not well elucidated. Indeed, a high n-6/n-3 PUFA in milk was associated with higher adiposity, arterial pressure and lower psychomotor scores in childhood. We aimed to explore the respective contribution of several maternal and perinatal factors to the variability of linoleic (LA), α-linolenic (ALA), arachidonic (AA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid levels in early milk. METHODS: Fatty acids of 934 colostrum samples from the EDEN mother-child cohort were analyzed by gas chromatography. The dietary intakes during the last trimester of pregnancy were estimated using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Relationship between milk PUFA and dietary fatty acids, and other maternal or pregnancy variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: The means (±SD) of colostrum LA, ALA, AA and DHA levels were, respectively, 9.85 ± 1.85, 0.65 ± 0.22, 0.86 ± 0.16, and 0.64 ± 0.19% of total fatty acids. Obese mothers colostrum contained the highest level of LA and AA and the lowest level of ALA and DHA. Colostrum LA, AA and DHA levels were higher in primiparous women. Mother's age was positively associated with colostrum AA and DHA. Dietary n-6 PUFA were associated with higher LA and lower DHA levels in colostrum, while dietary n-3 PUFA were related to higher LA and lower AA levels. Contrary to what was observed for DHA, AA level in colostrum was not related to its dietary intake. High dietary AA/DHA and total n-6/n-3 ratios were critical for the content of DHA in colostrum lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Our study brings new insights in the understanding of the main maternal factors involved in PUFA levels variability in early milk. These data are important to consider for dietary counseling for women prior to and during pregnancy.
    Mots-clés : BMI class, Cohort study, Colostrum PUFA, cvs, Maternal determinants, Pregnant women diet.

  • AZIZ A. - L., GIUSIANO B., JOUBERT S., DUPRAT L., DIDIC M., GUERIOT C., KORIC L., BOUCRAUT J., FELICIAN O., RANJEVA J. - P., GUEDJ E., CECCALDI M. “Difference in imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration between early and late-onset amnestic Alzheimer's disease.”. Neurobiology of Aging [En ligne]. 21 February 2017. Vol. 54, p. 22-30. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Neuroimaging biomarkers differ between patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Whether these changes reflect cognitive heterogeneity or differences in disease severity is still unknown. This study aimed at investigating changes in neuroimaging biomarkers, according to the age of onset of the disease, in mild amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients with positive amyloid biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Both patient groups were impaired on tasks assessing verbal and visual recognition memory. EOAD patients showed greater executive and linguistic deficits, while LOAD patients showed greater semantic memory impairment. In EOAD and LOAD, hypometabolism involved the bilateral temporoparietal junction and the posterior cingulate cortex. In EOAD, atrophy was widespread, including frontotemporoparietal areas, whereas it was limited to temporal regions in LOAD. Atrophic volumes were greater in EOAD than in LOAD. Hypometabolic volumes were similar in the 2 groups. Greater extent of atrophy in EOAD, despite similar extent of hypometabolism, could reflect different underlying pathophysiological processes, different glucose-based compensatory mechanisms or distinct level of premorbid atrophic lesions.
    Mots-clés : Age of Onset, Alzheimer's disease, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neuroimaging biomarkers, Positron emission tomography imaging, snc.

  • BESSON P., BANDT S. K., PROIX T., LAGARDE S., JIRSA V. K., RANJEVA J. - P., BARTOLOMEI F., GUYE M. “Anatomic consistencies across epilepsies: a stereotactic-EEG informed high-resolution structural connectivity study.”. Brain: A Journal of Neurology [En ligne]. 1 October 2017. Vol. 140, n°10, p. 2639-2652. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Mots-clés : brain networks, crmbm, diffusion weighted imaging, epilepsy, SEEG, snc, structural connectivity.

  • BESSON P., CARRIèRE N., BANDT S. K., TOMMASI M., LECLERC X., DERAMBURE P., LOPES R., TYVAERT L. “Whole-Brain High-Resolution Structural Connectome: Inter-Subject Validation and Application to the Anatomical Segmentation of the Striatum.”. Brain Topography [En ligne]. 1 May 2017. Vol. 30, n°3, p. 291-302. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le 18 August 2017)
    Résumé : The present study describes extraction of high-resolution structural connectome (HRSC) in 99 healthy subjects, acquired and made available by the Human Connectome Project. Single subject connectomes were then registered to the common surface space to allow assessment of inter-individual reproducibility of this novel technique using a leave-one-out approach. The anatomic relevance of the surface-based connectome was examined via a clustering algorithm, which identified anatomic subdivisions within the striatum. The connectivity of these striatal subdivisions were then mapped on the cortical and other subcortical surfaces. Findings demonstrate that HRSC analysis is robust across individuals and accurately models the actual underlying brain networks related to the striatum. This suggests that this method has the potential to model and characterize the healthy whole-brain structural network at high anatomic resolution.
    Mots-clés : Connectome, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, High-resolution, snc, Striatum clustering, Surface-based connectivity.

  • BYDDER M., RAPACCHI S., GIRARD O., GUYE M., RANJEVA J. - P. “Trimmed autocalibrating k-space estimation based on structured matrix completion.”. Magnetic Resonance Imaging [En ligne]. 15 July 2017. Vol. 43, p. 88-94. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: Parallel imaging allows the reconstruction of undersampled data from multiple coils. This provides a means to reject and regenerate corrupt data (e.g. from motion artefact). The purpose of this work is to approach this problem using the SAKE parallel imaging method. THEORY AND METHODS: Parallel imaging methods typically require calibration by fully sampling the center of k-space. This is a challenge in the presence of corrupted data, since the calibration data may be corrupted which leads to an errors-in-variables problem that cannot be solved by least squares or even iteratively reweighted least squares. The SAKE method, based on matrix completion and structured low rank approximation, was modified to detect and trim these errors from the data. RESULTS: Simulated and actual corrupted datasets were reconstructed with SAKE, the proposed approach and a more standard reconstruction method (based on solving a linear equation) with a data rejection criterion. The proposed approach was found to reduce artefacts considerably in comparison to the other two methods. CONCLUSION: SAKE with data trimming improves on previous methods for reconstructing images from grossly corrupted data.
    Mots-clés : Artefacts, crmbm, IRLS, Parallel imaging, Robust, snc, Structured low rank approximation.

  • CHATEL B., HOURDÉ C., GONDIN J., FOURÉ A., LE FUR Y., VILMEN C., BERNARD M., MESSONNIER L. A., BENDAHAN D. “Impaired muscle force production and higher fatigability in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.”. Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases [En ligne]. 11 January 2017. Vol. 63, p. 37-44. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Skeletal muscle function has been scarcely investigated in sickle cell disease (SCD) so that the corresponding impact of sickle hemoglobin is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle force production and fatigability in SCD and to identify whether exercise intensity could have a modulatory effect. Ten homozygous sickle cell (HbSS), ten control (HbAA) and ten heterozygous (HbAS) mice were submitted to two stimulation protocols (moderate and intense) to assess force production and fatigability. We showed that specific maximal tetanic force was lower in HbSS mice as compared to other groups. At the onset of the stimulation period, peak force was reduced in HbSS and HbAS mice as compared to HbAA mice. Contrary to the moderate protocol, the intense stimulation protocol was associated with a larger decrease in peak force and rate of force development in HbSS mice as compared to HbAA and HbAS mice. These findings provide in vivo evidence of impaired muscle force production and resistance to fatigue in SCD. These changes are independent of muscle mass. Moreover, SCD is associated with muscle fatigability when exercise intensity is high.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Exercise intensity, msk, Muscle mass, Muscle volume, Rate of force development.

  • CHATEL B., MESSONNIER L. A., BARGE Q., VILMEN C., NOIREZ P., BERNARD M., PIALOUX V., BENDAHAN D. “Endurance training reduces exercise-induced acidosis and improves muscle function in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.”. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism [En ligne]. 28 November 2017. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Sickle cell disease (SCD) mice (Townes model of SCD) presented exacerbated exercise-induced acidosis and fatigability as compared to control animals. We hypothesize that endurance training could represent a valuable approach to reverse these muscle defects. Endurance-trained HbAA (HbAA-END, n=10), HbAS (HbAS-END, n=11) and HbSS (HbSS-END, n=8) mice were compared to their sedentary counterparts (10 HbAA-SED, 10 HbAS-SED and 9 HbSS-SED mice) during two rest - exercise - recovery protocols during which muscle energetics and function were measured. In vitro analyses of some proteins involved in muscle energetics, pH regulation and oxidative stress were also performed. Exercise-induced acidosis was lower in HbSS-END mice as compared to their sedentary counterparts during both moderate (p<0.001) and intense (p<0.1) protocols. The total force production measured during both protocols was higher in trained mice compared to sedentary animals. In vitro analyses revealed that enolase/citrate synthase ratio was reduced in HbSS-END (p<0.001) and HbAS-END (p<0.01) mice compared to their sedentary counterparts. In addition, malondialdehyde concentration was reduced in trained mice (p<0.05). In conclusion, endurance training would reverse the more pronounced exercise-induced acidosis, reduce oxidative stress and ameliorate some of the muscle function parameters in SCD mice.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk, Muscle energetics, Muscle force production, pH, Physical activity.

  • CHATEL B., MESSONNIER L. A., BENDAHAN D. “Exacerbated in vivo metabolic changes suggestive of a spontaneous muscular vaso-occlusive crisis in exercising muscle of a sickle cell mouse.”. Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases [En ligne]. 1 June 2017. Vol. 65, p. 56-59. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le 18 August 2017)
    Résumé : While sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by frequent vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), no direct observation of such an event in skeletal muscle has been performed in vivo. The present study reported exacerbated in vivo metabolic changes suggestive of a spontaneous muscular VOC in exercising muscle of a sickle cell mouse. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy of phosphorus 31, phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate concentrations and intramuscular pH were measured throughout two standardized protocols of rest – exercise – recovery at two different intensities in ten SCD mice. Among these mice, one single mouse presented divergent responses. A statistical analysis (based on confidence intervals) revealed that this single mouse presented slower phosphocreatine resynthesis and inorganic phosphate disappearance during the post-stimulation recovery of one of the protocols, what could suggest an ischemia. This study described, for the first time in a sickle cell mouse in vivo, exacerbated metabolic changes triggered by an exercise session that would be suggestive of a live observation of a muscular VOC. However, no evidence of a direct cause-effect relationship between exercise and VOC has been put forth.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, HbS polymerization, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of phosphorus 31, msk, Physical activity, Red blood cell sickling.

  • DE LEENER B., LEVY S., DUPONT S. M., FONOV V. S., STIKOV N., COLLINS D. L., CALLOT V., COHEN-ADAD J. “SCT: Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data.”. Neuroimage [En ligne]. 15 January 2017. Vol. 145, p. 24-43. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc.), researchers have been developing specific tools that, while necessary, do not provide an integrative framework that is compatible with most usages and that is capable of reaching the community at large. This hinders cross-validation and the possibility to perform multi-center studies. In this study we introduce the Spinal Cord Toolbox (SCT), a comprehensive software dedicated to the processing of spinal cord MRI data. SCT builds on previously-validated methods and includes state-of-the-art MM templates and atlases of the spinal cord, algorithms to segment and register new data to the templates, and motion correction methods for diffusion and functional time series. SCT is tailored towards standardization and automation of the processing pipeline, versatility, modularity, and it follows guidelines of software development and distribution. Preliminary applications of SCT cover a variety of studies, from cross-sectional area measures in large databases of patients, to the precise quantification of mpMRI metrics in specific spinal pathways. We anticipate that SCT will bring together the spinal cord neuroimaging community by establishing standard templates and analysis procedures.

  • DE LEENER B., MANGEAT G., DUPONT S., MARTIN A. R., CALLOT V., STIKOV N., FEHLINGS M. G., COHEN-ADAD J. “Topologically preserving straightening of spinal cord MRI.”. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging: JMRI [En ligne]. October 2017. Vol. 46, n°4, p. 1209-1219. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: To propose a robust and accurate method for straightening magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spinal cord, based on spinal cord segmentation, that preserves spinal cord topology and that works for any MRI contrast, in a context of spinal cord template-based analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The spinal cord curvature was computed using an iterative Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) approximation. Forward and inverse deformation fields for straightening were computed by solving analytically the straightening equations for each image voxel. Computational speed-up was accomplished by solving all voxel equation systems as one single system. Straightening accuracy (mean and maximum distance from straight line), computational time, and robustness to spinal cord length was evaluated using the proposed and the standard straightening method (label-based spline deformation) on 3T T2 - and T1 -weighted images from 57 healthy subjects and 33 patients with spinal cord compression due to degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). RESULTS: The proposed algorithm was more accurate, more robust, and faster than the standard method (mean distance = 0.80 vs. 0.83 mm, maximum distance = 1.49 vs. 1.78 mm, time = 71 vs. 174 sec for the healthy population and mean distance = 0.65 vs. 0.68 mm, maximum distance = 1.28 vs. 1.55 mm, time = 32 vs. 60 sec for the DCM population). CONCLUSION: A novel image straightening method that enables template-based analysis of quantitative spinal cord MRI data is introduced. This algorithm works for any MRI contrast and was validated on healthy and patient populations. The presented method is implemented in the Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1209-1219.

  • DESROIS M., LAN C., MOVASSAT J., BERNARD M. “Reduced up-regulation of the nitric oxide pathway and impaired endothelial and smooth muscle functions in the female type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rat heart.”. Nutrition & Metabolism [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 14, p. 6. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with greater relative risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men, which is not well understood. Consequently, we have investigated if male and female displayed differences in cardiac function, energy metabolism, and endothelial function which could contribute to increased cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic female. METHODS: Male and female Control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) isolated rat hearts were perfused during 28 min with a physiological buffer before freeze-clamping for biochemical assays. High energy phosphate compounds and intracellular pH were followed using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy with simultaneous measurement of contractile function. Nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatations were measured as indexes of endothelial function. Results were analyzed via two-way ANOVA, p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Myocardial function was impaired in male and female diabetic versus Control groups (p < 0.05) without modification of energy metabolism. Coronary flow was decreased in both diabetic versus Control groups but to a higher extent in female GK versus male GK rat hearts (p < 0.05). NO production was up-regulated in diabetic groups but to a less extent in female GK rat hearts (p < 0.05). Endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilatations were impaired in female GK rat compared with male GK (p < 0.05) and female Control (p < 0.05) rat hearts. CONCLUSIONS: We reported here an endothelial damage characterized by a reduced up-regulation of the NO pathway and impaired endothelial and smooth muscle functions, and coronary flow rates in the female GK rat hearts while energy metabolism was normal. Whether these results are related to the higher risk of cardiovascular complications among type 2 diabetic female needs to be further elicited in the future.
    Mots-clés : Cardiac function, crmbm, cvs, Endothelial function, Energy Metabolism, Gender differences, Type 2 diabetic heart.

  • DONADIEU M., LE FUR Y., MAAROUF A., GHERIB S., RIDLEY B., PINI L., RAPACCHI S., CONFORT-GOUNY S., GUYE M., SCHAD L. R., MAUDSLEY A. A., PELLETIER J., AUDOIN B., ZAARAOUI W., RANJEVA J. - P. “Metabolic counterparts of sodium accumulation in multiple sclerosis: A whole brain (23)Na-MRI and fast (1)H-MRSI study.”. Multiple Sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) [En ligne]. 1 October 2017. p. 1352458517736146. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Increase of brain total sodium concentrations (TSC) is present in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its pathological involvement has not been assessed yet. OBJECTIVE: To determine in vivo the metabolic counterpart of brain sodium accumulation. MATERIALS/METHODS: Whole brain (23)Na-MR imaging and 3D-(1)H-EPSI data were collected in 21 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 20 volunteers. Metabolites and sodium levels were extracted from several regions of grey matter (GM), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter (WM) T2 lesions. Metabolic and ionic levels expressed as Z-scores have been averaged over the different compartments and used to explain sodium accumulations through stepwise regression models. RESULTS: MS patients showed significant (23)Na accumulations with lower choline and glutamate-glutamine (Glx) levels in GM; (23)Na accumulations with lower N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), Glx levels and higher Myo-Inositol (m-Ins) in NAWM; and higher (23)Na, m-Ins levels with lower NAA in WM T2 lesions. Regression models showed associations of TSC increase with reduced NAA in GM, NAWM and T2 lesions, as well as higher total-creatine, and smaller decrease of m-Ins in T2 lesions. GM Glx levels were associated with clinical scores. CONCLUSION: Increase of TSC in RRMS is mainly related to neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction while dysfunction of neuro-glial interactions within GM is linked to clinical scores.
    Mots-clés : 23Na-MRI, crmbm, demyelination, MRSI, Multiple Sclerosis, neurodegeneration, snc, stepwise regression.

  • FATEHI F., SALORT-CAMPANA E., LE TROTER A., LAREAU-TRUDEL E., BYDDER M., FOURÉ A., GUYE M., BENDAHAN D., ATTARIAN S. “Long-term follow-up of MRI changes in thigh muscles of patients with Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: A quantitative study.”. PloS One [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 12, n°8, p. e0183825. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common hereditary muscular disorders. Currently FSHD has no known effective treatment and detailed data on the natural history are lacking. Determination of the efficacy of a given therapeutic approach might be difficult in FSHD given the slow and highly variable disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate in vivo the muscle alterations in various neuromuscular disorders. The main aim of the present study was to investigate longitudinally the time-dependent changes occurring in thigh muscles of FSHD patients using quantitative MRI and to assess the potential relationships with the clinical findings. Thirty-five FSHD1 patients (17 females) were enrolled. Clinical assessment tools including manual muscle testing using medical research council score (MRC), and motor function measure (MFM) were recorded each year for a period ranging from 1 to 2 years. For the MRI measurements, we used a new quantitative index, i.e., the mean pixel intensity (MPI) calculated from the pixel-intensity distribution in T1 weighted images. The corresponding MPI scores were calculated for each thigh, for each compartment and for both thighs totally (MPItotal). The total mean pixel intensity (MPItotal) refers to the sum of each pixel signal intensity divided by the corresponding number of pixels. An increased MPItotal indicates both a raised fat infiltration together with a reduced muscle volume thereby illustrating disease progression. Clinical scores did not change significantly over time whereas MPItotal increased significantly from an initial averaged value of 39.6 to 41.1 with a corresponding rate of 0.62/year. While clinical scores and MPItotal measured at the start of the study were significantly related, no correlation was found between the rate of MPItotal and MRC sum score changes, MFMtotal and MFM subscores. The relative rate of MPItotal change was 2.3% (0.5-4.3)/year and was significantly higher than the corresponding rates measured for MRCS 0% (0-1.7) /year and MFMtotal 0% (0-2.0) /year (p = 0.000). On the basis of these results, we suggested that muscle MRI and more particularly the MPItotal index could be used as a reliable biomarker and outcome measure of disease progression. In slowly progressive myopathies such as FSHD, the MPItotal index might reveal subclinical changes, which could not be evidenced using clinical scales over a short period of time.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, msk, Muscle, Skeletal, Muscular Dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral.

  • FISSOLO N., PIGNOLET B., MATUTE-BLANCH C., TRIVIÑO J. C., MIRÓ B., MOTA M., PEREZ-HOYOS S., SANCHEZ A., VERMERSCH P., RUET A., DE SÈZE J., LABAUGE P., VUKUSIC S., PAPEIX C., ALMOYNA L., TOURBAH A., CLAVELOU P., MOREAU T., PELLETIER J., LEBRUN-FRENAY C., MONTALBAN X., BRASSAT D., COMABELLA M., BIOMARKERS AND RESPONSE TO NATALIZUMAB FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS TREATMENT (BIONAT), BEST ESCALATION TREATMENT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (BEST-MS), AND THE SOCIÉTÉ FRANCOPHONE DE LA SCLÉROSE EN PLAQUES (SFSEP) NETWORK. “Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is decreased in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients at risk for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.”. Annals of Neurology [En ligne]. August 2017. Vol. 82, n°2, p. 186-195. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers associated with the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab (NTZ). METHODS: Relapsing-remitting MS patients who developed PML under NTZ therapy (pre-PML) and non-PML NTZ-treated patients (NTZ-ctr) were included in the study. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum samples collected at baseline, at 1- and 2-year treated time points, and during PML were analyzed for gene expression by RNA sequencing and for serum protein levels by Luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. RESULTS: Among top differentially expressed genes in the RNA sequencing between pre-PML and NTZ-ctr patients, pathway analysis revealed a high representation of genes belonging to the following categories: proangiogenic factors (MMP9, VEGFA), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, IL8, CCL2), cytokines (IL1B, IFNG), and plasminogen- and coagulation-related molecules (SERPINB2, PLAU, PLAUR, TFPI, THBD). Serum protein levels for these candidates were measured in a 2-step manner in a screening cohort and a validation cohort of pre-PML and NTZ-ctr patients. Only matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was validated; in pre-PML patients, MMP9 protein levels were significantly reduced at baseline compared with NTZ-ctr patients, and levels remained lower at later time points during NTZ treatment. INTERPRETATION: The results from this study suggest that the proangiogenic factor MMP9 may play a role as a biomarker associated with the development of PML in MS patients treated with NTZ. Ann Neurol 2017;82:186-195.
    Mots-clés : Biomarkers, Blood Proteins, Gene Expression, Humans, Immunologic Factors, Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9, Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting, Natalizumab, snc, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A.

  • FOURÉ A., BENDAHAN D. “Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review.”. Nutrients [En ligne]. 21 September 2017. Vol. 9, n°10,. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury. The potential benefit of a BCAAs supplementation was also analyzed according to the supplementation strategy-amount of BCAAs, frequency and duration of the supplementation-and the extent of muscle damage. The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42017073006) and followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Literature search was performed from the date of commencement until August 2017 using four online databases (Medline, Cochrane library, Web of science and ScienceDirect). Original research articles: (i) written in English; (ii) describing experiments performed in Humans who received at least one oral BCAAs supplementation composed of leucine, isoleucine and valine mixture only as a nutritional strategy and (iii) reporting a follow-up of at least one day after exercise-induced muscle damage, were included in the systematic review analysis. Quality assessment was undertaken independently using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were considered as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were the extent of change in indirect markers of muscle damage. In total, 11 studies were included in the analysis. A high heterogeneity was found regarding the different outcomes of these studies. The risk of bias was moderate considering the quality ratings were positive for six and neutral for three. Although a small number of studies were included, BCAAs supplementation can be efficacious on outcomes of exercise-induced muscle damage, as long as the extent of muscle damage was low-to-moderate, the supplementation strategy combined a high daily BCAAs intake (>200 mg kg-1 day-1) for a long period of time (>10 days); it was especially effective if taken prior to the damaging exercise.
    Mots-clés : branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), crmbm, exercise-induced muscle damage, msk, nutritional strategy, skeletal muscle.

  • FOURÉ A., DUHAMEL G., VILMEN C., BENDAHAN D., JUBEAU M., GONDIN J. “Fast measurement of the quadriceps femoris muscle transverse relaxation time at high magnetic field using segmented echo-planar imaging.”. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging: JMRI [En ligne]. February 2017. Vol. 45, n°2, p. 356-368. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: To assess and validate a technique for transverse relaxation time (T2 ) measurements of resting and recovering skeletal muscle following exercise with a high temporal resolution and large volume coverage using segmented spin-echo echo-planar imaging (sSE-EPI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner using a multislice sSE-EPI technique applied at different echo times (TEs). T2 measurements were first validated in vitro in calibrated T2 phantoms (range: 25-152 ms) by comparing sSE-EPI, standard spin-echo (SE), and multislice multiecho (MSME) techniques (using a fitting procedure or a 2-TEs calculation). In vivo measurements of resting T2 quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle were performed with both sSE-EPI and MSME sequences. Finally, sSE-EPI was used to quantify T2 changes in recovering muscle after an exercise. RESULTS: T2 values measured in vitro with sSE-EPI were similar to those assessed with SE (P > 0.05). In vitro and in vivo T2 measurements obtained with sSE-EPI were independent of the T2 determination procedure (P > 0.05). In contrast, both in vitro and in vivo T2 values derived from MSME were significantly different when using 2-TEs calculation as compared to the fitting procedure (P < 0.05). sSE-EPI allowed the detection of increased T2 values in the QF muscle immediately after exercise (+14 ± 9%), while lower T2 values were recorded less than 2 min afterwards (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: sSE-EPI sequence is a relevant method to monitor exercise-induced T2 changes of skeletal muscles over large volume coverage and to detect abnormal patterns of muscle activation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:356-368.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Exercise, MRI, msk, skeletal muscle, spin-echo sequence, T2.

  • GABORIT B., SENGENES C., ANCEL P., JACQUIER A., DUTOUR A. “Role of Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease: A Matter of Fat?”. Comprehensive Physiology [En ligne]. 18 June 2017. Vol. 7, n°3, p. 1051-1082. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue. The balance between protective and proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines, chemokines, and adipokines released by EAT seem to be a key element in atherogenesis and could represent a future therapeutic target. EAT amount has been found to predict clinical coronary outcomes. EAT can also modulate cardiac structure and function. Its amount has been associated with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and sleep apnea syndrome. Conversely, a beiging fat profile of EAT has been identified. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiological role of EAT, and the factors more globally leading to ectopic fat development. We will also highlight the most recent findings on the origin of this ectopic tissue, and its association with cardiac diseases. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1051-1082, 2017.
    Mots-clés : cvs.

  • GIRARD O. M., CALLOT V., PREVOST V. H., ROBERT B., TASO M., RIBEIRO G., VARMA G., RANGWALA N., ALSOP D. C., DUHAMEL G. “Magnetization transfer from inhomogeneously broadened lines (ihMT): Improved imaging strategy for spinal cord applications.”. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine [En ligne]. January 2017. Vol. 77, p. 581-591. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le 10 March 2016)
    Résumé : Purpose Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) shows great promise for specific imaging of myelinated tissues. Whereas the ihMT technique has been previously applied in brain applications, the current report presents a strategy for cervical spinal cord (SC) imaging free of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility artifacts. Methods A pulsed ihMT preparation was combined with a single-shot HASTE readout. Electrocardiogram (ECG) synchronization was used to acquire all images during the quiescent phase of SC motion. However ihMT signal quantification errors may occur when a variable recovery delay is introduced in the sequence as a consequence of variable cardiac cycle. A semiautomatic retrospective correction algorithm, based on repetition time (TR) -matching, is proposed to correct for signal variations of long T1-components (e.g., CSF). Results The proposed strategy combining ECG synchronization and retrospective data pairing led to clean SC images free of CSF artifacts. Lower variability of the ihMT metrics were obtained with the correction algorithm, and allowed for shorter TR to be used, hence improving signal-to-noise ratio efficiency. Conclusion The proposed methodology enabled faster acquisitions, while offering robust ihMT quantification and exquisite SC image quality. This opens great perspectives for widening the in vivo characterization of SC physiopathology using MRI, such as studying white matter tracts microstructure or impairment in degenerative pathologies. Magn Reson Med, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, CSF pulsatility, ECG synchronization, ihMT, Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer, motion correction, myelin, snc, spinal cord, white matter.

  • GRIMALDI S., DUPRAT L., GRAPPERON A. - M., VERSCHUEREN A., DELMONT E., ATTARIAN S. “Global motor unit number index sum score for assessing the loss of lower motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.”. Muscle & Nerve [En ligne]. August 2017. Vol. 56, n°2, p. 202-206. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : INTRODUCTION: We propose a motor unit number index (MUNIX) global sum score in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to estimate the loss of functional motor units. METHODS: MUNIX was assessed for 18 ALS patients and 17 healthy controls in 7 muscles: the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), tibialis anterior (TA), deltoid, trapezius, submental complex, and orbicularis oris. RESULTS: MUNIX was significantly lower in ALS patients than in healthy controls for the APB, ADM, TA, and trapezius muscles. The MUNIX sum score of 4 muscles (ADM + APB + trapezius + TA) was lower in ALS patients (P = 0.01) and was correlated with clinical scores. DISCUSSION: The global MUNIX sum score proposed in this study estimates the loss of lower motor neurons in several body regions, including the trapezius, and is correlated with clinical impairment in ALS patients. Muscle Nerve 56: 202-206, 2017.
    Mots-clés : Aged, ALS, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, biomarker, clinical correlation, Electromyography, Evoked Potentials, Motor, Female, global MUNIX sum score, Humans, Linear Models, Male, Middle Aged, Motor Neurons, motor unit, MUNIX, Muscle, Skeletal, Severity of Illness Index, snc.

  • GUENOUN D., FOURé A., PITHIOUX M., GUIS S., LE CORROLLER T., MATTEI J. - P., PAULY V., GUYE M., BERNARD M., CHABRAND P., CHAMPSAUR P., BENDAHAN D. “Correlative Analysis of Vertebral Trabecular Bone Microarchitecture and Mechanical Properties: A Combined Ultra-high Field (7 Tesla) MRI and Biomechanical Investigation.”. Spine [En ligne]. 15 October 2017. Vol. 42, n°20, p. E1165-E1172. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : STUDY DESIGN: High-resolution imaging and biomechanical investigation of ex-vivo vertebrae. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess bone microarchitecture of cadaveric vertebrae using ultra-high field (UHF) 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine whether the corresponding microarchitecture parameters were related to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical compression tests. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Limitations of DXA for the assessment of bone fragility and osteoporosis have been recognized and criteria of microarchitecture alteration have been included in the definition of osteoporosis. Although vertebral fracture is the most common osteoporotic fracture, no study has assessed directly vertebral trabecular bone microarchitecture. METHODS: BMD of 24 vertebrae (L2, L3, L4) from eight cadavers was investigated using DXA. The bone volume fraction (BVF), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) of each vertebra were quantified using UHF MRI. Measurements were performed by two operators to characterize the inter-rater reliability. The whole set of specimens underwent mechanical compression tests to failure and the corresponding failure stress was calculated. RESULTS: The inter-rater reliability for bone microarchitecture parameters was good with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82 to 0.94. Failure load and stress were significantly correlated with BVF, Tb.Sp, and BMD (P < 0.05). Tb.Th was only correlated with the failure stress (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the combination of BVF and BMD improved the prediction of the failure stress from an adjusted R = 0.384 for BMD alone to an adjusted R = 0.414. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated for the first time that the vertebral bone microarchitecture assessed with UHF MRI was significantly correlated with biomechanical parameters. Our data suggest that the multimodal assessment of BMD and trabecular bone microarchitecture with UHF MRI provides additional information on the risk of vertebral bone fracture and might be of interest for the future investigation of selected osteoporotic patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N /A.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

  • HABIB G., BUCCIARELLI-DUCCI C., CAFORIO A. L. P., CARDIM N., CHARRON P., COSYNS B., DEHAENE A., DERUMEAUX G., DONAL E., DWECK M. R., EDVARDSEN T., ERBA P. A., ERNANDE L., GAEMPERLI O., GALDERISI M., GRAPSA J., JACQUIER A., KLINGEL K., LANCELLOTTI P., NEGLIA D., PEPE A., PERRONE-FILARDI P., PETERSEN S. E., PLEIN S., POPESCU B. A., REANT P., SADE L. E., SALAUN E., SLART R. H. J. A., TRIBOUILLOY C., ZAMORANO J., EACVI SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTS COMMITTEE, INDIAN ACADEMY OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY. “Multimodality Imaging in Restrictive Cardiomyopathies: An EACVI expert consensus document In collaboration with the "Working Group on myocardial and pericardial diseases" of the European Society of Cardiology Endorsed by The Indian Academy of Echocardiography.”. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging [En ligne]. 1 October 2017. Vol. 18, n°10, p. 1090-1121. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Restrictive cardiomyopathies (RCMs) are a diverse group of myocardial diseases with a wide range of aetiologies, including familial, genetic and acquired diseases and ranging from very rare to relatively frequent cardiac disorders. In all these diseases, imaging techniques play a central role. Advanced imaging techniques provide important novel data on the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of RCMs. This EACVI consensus document provides comprehensive information for the appropriateness of all non-invasive imaging techniques for the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and management of patients with RCM.

  • HAN F., RAPACCHI S., HU P. “Prospective cardiac motion self-gating.”. Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery [En ligne]. April 2017. Vol. 7, n°2, p. 215-226. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: To develop a prospective cardiac motion self-gating method that provides robust and accurate cardiac triggers in real time. METHODS: The proposed self-gating method consists of an "imaging mode" that acquires the k-space segments and a "self-gating mode" that captures the cardiac motion by repeatedly sampling the k-space centerline. A training based principal component analysis algorithm is utilized to process the self-gating data where the projection onto the first principal component was used as the self-gating signal. Retrospective studies using a sequence with self-gating mode only was performed on 8 healthy subjects to validate the accuracy and reliability of the self-gating triggers. Prospective studies using both ECG-gated and self-gated cardiac CINE sequences were conducted on 6 healthy subjects to compare the image quality. RESULTS: Using the ECG as the reference, the proposed method was able to detect self-gating triggers within ±10 ms accuracy on all 8 subjects in the retrospective study. The prospectively self-gated CINE sequence successfully detected 100% of the cardiac triggers and provided excellent CINE image quality without using ECG signals. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed cardiac self-gating method is a robust and accurate alternative to conventional ECG-based gating method for a number of cardiac MRI applications.
    Mots-clés : cardiac MRI, motion correction using multiple coil array (MOCCA), principal component analysis (PCA), prospective gating, Self-gating.

  • JIRSA V. K., PROIX T., PERDIKIS D., WOODMAN M. M., WANG H., GONZALEZ-MARTINEZ J., BERNARD C., BENAR C., GUYE M., CHAUVEL P., BARTOLOMEI F. “The Virtual Epileptic Patient: Individualized whole-brain models of epilepsy spread.”. Neuroimage [En ligne]. 15 January 2017. Vol. 145, p. 377-388. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Individual variability has clear effects upon the outcome of therapies and treatment approaches. The customization of healthcare options to the individual patient should accordingly improve treatment results. We propose a novel approach to brain interventions based on personalized brain network models derived from non-invasive structural data of individual patients. Along the example of a patient with bitemporal epilepsy, we show step by step how to develop a Virtual Epileptic Patient (VEP) brain model and integrate patient-specific information such as brain connectivity, epileptogenic zone and MRI lesions. Using high-performance computing, we systematically carry out parameter space explorations, fit and validate the brain model against the patient's empirical stereotactic EEG (SEEG) data and demonstrate how to develop novel personalized strategies towards therapy and intervention. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Mots-clés : Diffusion MRI, eeg, Functional connectivity, network dynamics, resting brain, snc, spherical-deconvolution, structural connectivity, surgery, temporal-lobe epilepsy, tractography.

  • KAAOUANA T., BERTRAND A., OUAMER F., LAW-YE B., PYATIGORSKAYA N., BOUYAHIA A., THIERY N., DUFOUIL C., DELMAIRE C., DORMONT D., DE ROCHEFORT L., CHUPIN M. “Improved cerebral microbleeds detection using their magnetic signature on T2*-phase-contrast: A comparison study in a clinical setting.”. NeuroImage. Clinical [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 15, p. 274-283. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: In vivo detection of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) from T2* gradient recalled echo (GRE) magnitude image suffers from low specificity, modest inter-rater reproducibility and is biased by its sensitivity to acquisition parameters. New methods were proposed for improving this identification, but they mostly rely on 3D acquisitions, not always feasible in clinical practice. A fast 2D phase processing technique for computing internal field maps (IFM) has been shown to make it possible to characterize CMBs through their magnetic signature in routine clinical setting, based on 2D multi-slice acquisitions. However, its clinical interest for CMBs identification with respect to more common images remained to be assessed. To do so, systematic experiments were undertaken to compare the ratings obtained by trained observers with several image types, T2* magnitude, Susceptibility Weighted Imaging reconstructions (SWI) and IFM built from the same T2*-weighted acquisition. MATERIALS/METHODS: 15 participants from the MEMENTO multi-center cohort were selected: six subjects with numerous CMBs (20 ± 6 CMBs), five subjects with a few CMBs (2 ± 1 CMBs) and four subjects without CMB. 2D multi-slice T2* GRE sequences were acquired on Philips and Siemens 3T systems. After pilot experiments, T2* magnitude, Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) minimum intensity projection (mIP) on three slices and IFM were considered for the rating experiments. A graphical user interface (GUI) was designed in order to consistently display images in random order. Six raters of various background and expertise independently selected "definite" or "possible" CMBs. Rating results were compared with respect to a specific consensus reference, on both lesion and subject type points of view. RESULTS: IFM yielded increased sensitivity and decreased false positives rate (FPR) for CMBs identification compared to T2* magnitude and SWI-mIP images. Inter-rater variability was decreased with IFM when identifying subjects with numerous lesions, with only a limited increase in rating time. IFM thus appears as an interesting candidate to improve CMBs identification in clinical setting.
    Mots-clés : Magnetic susceptibility, Microbleeds, Phase MRI, SWI.

  • KEE Y., LIU Z., ZHOU L., DIMOV A., CHO J., DE ROCHEFORT L., SEO J. K., WANG Y. “Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) Algorithms: Mathematical Rationale and Computational Implementations.”. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering [En ligne]. November 2017. Vol. 64, n°11, p. 2531-2545. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) solves the magnetic field-to-magnetization (tissue susceptibility) inverse problem under conditions of noisy and incomplete field data acquired using magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, sophisticated algorithms are necessary to treat the ill-posed nature of the problem and are reviewed here. The forward problem is typically presented as an integral form, where the field is the convolution of the dipole kernel and tissue susceptibility distribution. This integral form can be equivalently written as a partial differential equation (PDE). Algorithmic challenges are to reduce streaking and shadow artifacts characterized by the fundamental solution of the PDE. Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation can be employed to solve the inverse problem, where morphological and relevant biomedical knowledge (specific to the imaging situation) are used as priors. As the cost functions in Bayesian QSM framework are typically convex, solutions can be robustly computed using a gradient-based optimization algorithm. Moreover, one can not only accelerate Bayesian QSM, but also increase its effectiveness at reducing shadows using prior knowledge based preconditioners. Improving the efficiency of QSM is under active development, and a rigorous analysis of preconditioning needs to be carried out for further investigation.Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) solves the magnetic field-to-magnetization (tissue susceptibility) inverse problem under conditions of noisy and incomplete field data acquired using magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, sophisticated algorithms are necessary to treat the ill-posed nature of the problem and are reviewed here. The forward problem is typically presented as an integral form, where the field is the convolution of the dipole kernel and tissue susceptibility distribution. This integral form can be equivalently written as a partial differential equation (PDE). Algorithmic challenges are to reduce streaking and shadow artifacts characterized by the fundamental solution of the PDE. Bayesian maximum a posteriori estimation can be employed to solve the inverse problem, where morphological and relevant biomedical knowledge (specific to the imaging situation) are used as priors. As the cost functions in Bayesian QSM framework are typically convex, solutions can be robustly computed using a gradient-based optimization algorithm. Moreover, one can not only accelerate Bayesian QSM, but also increase its effectiveness at reducing shadows using prior knowledge based preconditioners. Improving the efficiency of QSM is under active development, and a rigorous analysis of preconditioning needs to be carried out for further investigation.
    Mots-clés : Bayes methods, Inverse problems, Kernel, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic susceptibility, Partial differential equations, Resource description framework, snc.

  • KERBRAT A., COMBÈS B., COMMOWICK O., MAAROUF A., BANNIER E., FERRÉ J. C., TOURBAH A., RANJEVA J. - P., BARILLOT C., EDAN G. “USPIO-positive MS lesions are associated with greater tissue damage than gadolinium-positive-only lesions during 3-year follow-up.”. Multiple Sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England) [En ligne]. 1 October 2017. p. 1352458517736148. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Identifying in vivo the processes that determine lesion severity in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains a challenge. OBJECTIVES: To describe the dynamics of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) enhancement in MS lesions and the relationship between USPIO enhancement and microstructural changes over 3 years. METHODS: Lesion development was assessed at baseline, Months 3, 6, and 9, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium and USPIO. Microstructural changes were assessed at baseline, Months 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36, using relaxometry, magnetization transfer, and diffusion-weighted imaging. RESULTS: We included 15 patients with clinically isolated syndrome. In the 52 MRI scans acquired with USPIO, 22 lesions were USPIO and gadolinium positive, and 44 were USPIO negative but gadolinium positive. Lesions no longer exhibited sustained USPIO enhancement 3 months later. At baseline, lesions that were both USPIO and gadolinium positive had lower magnetization transfer ratio values (common language effect size = 0.84, p = 0.0005) and lower fractional anisotropy values (0.83, p = 0.001) than gadolinium-positive-only lesions. USPIO-positive lesions remained associated with greater damage than gadolinium-positive-only lesions throughout the 3-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: USPIO enhancement, mainly reflecting monocyte infiltration, is transient and is associated with persistent tissue damage after 3 years.
    Mots-clés : clinically isolated syndrome, crmbm, diffusion tensor imaging, Gadolinium, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, Multiple Sclerosis, snc, USPIO.

  • LAROCHE M., ALMERAS L., PECCHI E., BECHAH Y., RAOULT D., VIOLA A., PAROLA P. “MALDI-TOF MS as an innovative tool for detection of Plasmodium parasites in Anopheles mosquitoes.”. Malaria Journal [En ligne]. 3 January 2017. Vol. 16, n°1, p. 5. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Malaria is still a major public health issue worldwide, and one of the best approaches to fight the disease remains vector control. The current methods for mosquito identification include morphological methods that are generally time-consuming and require expertise, and molecular methods that require laboratory facilities with relatively expensive running costs. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology, routinely used for bacterial identification, has recently emerged in the field of entomology. The aim of the present study was to assess whether MALDI-TOF MS could successfully distinguish Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes according to their Plasmodium infection status. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice experimentally infected with Plasmodium berghei were exposed to An. stephensi bites. For the determination of An. stephensi infection status, mosquito cephalothoraxes were dissected and submitted to mass spectrometry analyses and DNA amplification for molecular analysis. Spectra were grouped according to mosquitoes' infection status and spectra quality was validated based on intensity and reproducibility within each group. The in-lab MALDI-TOF MS arthropod reference spectra database, upgraded with representative spectra from both groups (infected/non-infected), was subsequently queried blindly with cephalothorax spectra from specimens of both groups. RESULTS: The MALDI TOF MS profiles generated from protein extracts prepared from the cephalothorax of An. stephensi allowed distinction between infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Correct classification was obtained in blind test analysis for (79/80) 98.75% of all mosquitoes tested. Only one of 80 specimens, an infected mosquito, was misclassified in the blind test analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry appears to be a promising, rapid and reliable tool for the epidemiological surveillance of Anopheles vectors, including their identification and their infection status.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, sasnc.

  • LEGUERNEY I., DE ROCHEFORT L., POIRIER-QUINOT M., INGELS A., VIOLAS X., ROBIN S., OPOLON P., DUBUISSON R. - M., PITRE-CHAMPAGNAT S., ROBERT P., LASSAU N. “Molecular Imaging to Predict Response to Targeted Therapies in Renal Cell Carcinoma.”. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 2017, p. 7498538. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Molecular magnetic resonance imaging targeted to an endothelial integrin involved in neoangiogenesis was compared to DCE-US and immunochemistry to assess the early response of three different therapeutic agents in renal cell carcinoma. Human A498 renal cells carcinoma was subcutaneously inoculated into 24 nude mice. Mice received either phosphate-buffered saline solution, sunitinib, everolimus, or bevacizumab during 4 days. DCE-US and molecular MRI targeting αvβ3 were performed at baseline and 4 days after treatment initiation. PI, AUC, relaxation rate variations ΔR2(⁎), and percentage of vessels area quantified on CD31-stained microvessels were compared. Significant decreases were observed for PI and AUC parameters measured by DCE-US for bevacizumab group as early as 4 days, whereas molecular αvβ3-targeted MRI was able to detect significant changes in both bevacizumab and everolimus groups. Percentage of CD31-stained microvessels was significantly correlated with DCE-US parameters, PI (R = 0.87, p = 0.0003) and AUC (R = 0.81, p = 0.0013). The percentage of vessel tissue area was significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in both sunitinib and bevacizumab groups. We report an early detection of neoangiogenesis modification after induction of targeted therapies, using DCE-US or αvβ3-targeted MRI. We consider these outcomes should encourage clinical trial developments to further evaluate the potential of this molecular MRI technique.

  • LEPORQ B., TROTER A. L., FUR Y. L., SALORT-CAMPANA E., GUYE M., BEUF O., ATTARIAN S., BENDAHAN D. “Combined quantification of fatty infiltration, T1-relaxation times and T2*-relaxation times in normal-appearing skeletal muscle of controls and dystrophic patients.”. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine [En ligne]. 1 August 2017. Vol. 30, n°4, p. 407-415. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le 18 August 2017)
    Résumé : ObjectivesTo evaluate the combination of a fat–water separation method with an automated segmentation algorithm to quantify the intermuscular fatty-infiltrated fraction, the relaxation times, and the microscopic fatty infiltration in the normal-appearing muscle.Materials and methodsMR acquisitions were performed at 1.5T in seven patients with facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy and eight controls. Disease severity was assessed using commonly used scales for the upper and lower limbs. The fat–water separation method provided proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and relaxation times maps (T2* and T1). The segmentation algorithm distinguished adipose tissue and normal-appearing muscle from the T2* map and combined active contours, a clustering analysis, and a morphological closing process to calculate the index of fatty infiltration (IFI) in the muscle compartment defined as the relative amount of pixels with the ratio between the number of pixels within IMAT and the total number of pixels (IMAT + normal appearing muscle).ResultsIn patients, relaxation times were longer and a larger fatty infiltration has been quantified in the normal-appearing muscle. T2* and PDFF distributions were broader. The relaxation times were correlated to the Vignos scale whereas the microscopic fatty infiltration was linked to the Medwin-Gardner-Walton scale. The IFI was linked to a composite clinical severity scale gathering the whole set of scales.ConclusionThe MRI indices quantified within the normal-appearing muscle could be considered as potential biomarkers of dystrophies and quantitatively illustrate tissue alterations such as inflammation and fatty infiltration.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, msk, Muscle dystrophies, Segmentation.

  • LUTZ N. W., BERNARD M. “Multiparametric quantification of thermal heterogeneity within aqueous materials by water 1H NMR spectroscopy: Paradigms and algorithms.”. PLOS ONE [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 12, n°5, p. e0178431. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le 18 August 2017)
    Résumé : Processes involving heat generation and dissipation play an important role in the performance of numerous materials. The behavior of (semi-)aqueous materials such as hydrogels during production and application, but also properties of biological tissue in disease and therapy (e.g., hyperthermia) critically depend on heat regulation. However, currently available thermometry methods do not provide quantitative parameters characterizing the overall temperature distribution within a volume of soft matter. To this end, we present here a new paradigm enabling accurate, contactless quantification of thermal heterogeneity based on the line shape of a water proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectrum. First, the 1H NMR resonance from water serving as a "temperature probe" is transformed into a temperature curve. Then, the digital points of this temperature profile are used to construct a histogram by way of specifically developed algorithms. We demonstrate that from this histogram, at least eight quantitative parameters describing the underlying statistical temperature distribution can be computed: weighted median, weighted mean, standard deviation, range, mode(s), kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. All mathematical transformations and calculations are performed using specifically programmed EXCEL spreadsheets. Our new paradigm is helpful in detailed investigations of thermal heterogeneity, including dynamic characteristics of heat exchange at sub-second temporal resolution.
    Mots-clés : Algorithms, crmbm, cvs, Distribution curves, Entropy, Gels, NMR spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Skewness, Statistical distributions.

  • MAAROUF A., AUDOIN B., PARIOLLAUD F., GHERIB S., RICO A., SOULIER E., CONFORT-GOUNY S., GUYE M., SCHAD L., PELLETIER J., RANJEVA J. - P., ZAARAOUI W. “Increased total sodium concentration in gray matter better explains cognition than atrophy in MS.”. Neurology [En ligne]. 17 January 2017. Vol. 88, n°3, p. 289-295. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le 18 August 2017)
    Résumé : Objective: To investigate whether brain total sodium accumulation assessed by 23Na MRI is associated with cognitive deficit in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Eighty-nine participants were enrolled in the study (58 patients with RRMS with a disease duration ≤10 years and 31 matched healthy controls). Patients were classified as cognitively impaired if they failed at least 2 tasks on the Brief Repeatable Battery. MRI was performed at 3T using 23Na MRI to obtain total sodium concentration (TSC) in the different brain compartments (lesions, normal-appearing white matter [NAWM], gray matter [GM]) and 1H- magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo to assess GM atrophy (GM fraction). Results: The mean disease duration was 3.1 years and the median Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 1 (range 0–4.5). Thirty-seven patients were classified as cognitively preserved and 21 as cognitively impaired. TSC was increased in GM and NAWM in cognitively impaired patients compared to cognitively preserved patients and healthy controls. Voxel-wise analysis demonstrated that sodium accumulation was mainly located in the neocortex in cognitively impaired patients. Regression analysis evidenced than the 2 best independent predictors of cognitive impairment were GM TSC and age. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that sensitivity and specificity of the GM TSC to classify patients according to their cognitive status were 76% and 71%, respectively. Conclusions: This study provides 2 main findings. (1) In RRMS, total sodium accumulation in the GM is better associated with cognitive impairment than GM atrophy; and (2) total sodium accumulation in patients with cognitive impairment is mainly located in the neocortex.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, snc.

  • MACE P., MILH M., GIRARD N., SIGAUDY S., QUARELLO E. “[How to deal with a fetal head circumference lower than the third percentile?].”. Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie [En ligne]. September 2017. Vol. 45, n°9, p. 491-511. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The prenatal finding of a head circumference (HC) below the 3rd percentile (p) remains, in the same way as short femur or increased nuchal translucency with normal karyotype, one the most difficult situations for the praticionner in the setting of prenatal diagnosis. Microcephaly is a gateway to possible cerebral pathologies, but the main objective is to identify serious prenatal situations. A standardized HC measurement, the use of adapted reference tools and charts, longitudinal following of cephalic biometrics in high-risk situations, and systematic central nervous system analysis can increase the diagnostic performance of ultrasound which is often disappointing for microcephaly. The early distinction between associated or isolated microcephaly makes it possible to quickly orient the prenatal management and counseling. Fetal MRI and genetic counseling are fundamental in this context, making it possible to specify at best the etiological diagnosis and to provide assistance to the neuropediatrician in the establishment of an often uncertain prognosis. The recent increase in cases of microcephaly concomitant with the epidemic of the ZIKA virus is an additional argument to improve our practices and the daily apprehension of HC<3rd p.

  • MCHINDA S., VARMA G., PREVOST V. H., LE TROTER A., RAPACCHI S., GUYE M., PELLETIER J., RANJEVA J. - P., ALSOP D. C., DUHAMEL G., GIRARD O. M. “Whole brain inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) imaging: Sensitivity enhancement within a steady-state gradient echo sequence.”. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine [En ligne]. 23 September 2017. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: To implement, characterize, and optimize an interleaved inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) gradient echo sequence allowing for whole-brain imaging within a clinically compatible scan time. THEORY AND METHODS: A general framework for ihMT modelling was developed based on the Provotorov theory of radiofrequency saturation, which accounts for the dipolar order underpinning the ihMT effect. Experimental studies and numerical simulations were performed to characterize and optimize the ihMT-gradient echo dependency with sequence timings, saturation power, and offset frequency. The protocol was optimized in terms of maximum signal intensity and the reproducibility assessed for a nominal resolution of 1.5 mm isotropic. All experiments were performed on healthy volunteers at 1.5T. RESULTS: An important mechanism driving signal optimization and leading to strong ihMT signal enhancement that relies on the dynamics of radiofrequency energy deposition has been identified. By taking advantage of the delay allowed for readout between ihMT pulse bursts, it was possible to boost the ihMT signal by almost 2-fold compared to previous implementation. Reproducibility of the optimal protocol was very good, with an intra-individual error < 2%. CONCLUSION: The proposed sensitivity-boosted and time-efficient steady-state ihMT-gradient echo sequence, implemented and optimized at 1.5T, allowed robust high-resolution 3D ihMT imaging of the whole brain within a clinically compatible scan time. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, dipolar order, dual frequency RF saturation, ihMT, Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer, magnetization transfer model, myelin, Provotorov theory of radiofrequency saturation, snc.

  • NATHAN P. J., LIM Y. Y., ABBOTT R., GALLUZZI S., MARIZZONI M., BABILONI C., ALBANI D., BARTRES-FAZ D., DIDIC M., FAROTTI L., PARNETTI L., SALVADORI N., MÜLLER B. W., FORLONI G., GIRTLER N., HENSCH T., JOVICICH J., LEEUWIS A., MARRA C., MOLINUEVO J. L., NOBILI F., PARIENTE J., PAYOUX P., RANJEVA J. - P., ROLANDI E., ROSSINI P. M., SCHÖNKNECHT P., SORICELLI A., TSOLAKI M., VISSER P. J., WILTFANG J., RICHARDSON J. C., BORDET R., BLIN O., FRISONI G. B., PHARMACOG CONSORTIUM. “Association between CSF biomarkers, hippocampal volume and cognitive function in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).”. Neurobiology of Aging [En ligne]. 2017. Vol. 53, p. 1-10. Disponible sur : < > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Few studies have examined the relationship between CSF and structural biomarkers, and cognitive function in MCI. We examined the relationship between cognitive function, hippocampal volume and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 and tau in 145 patients with MCI. Patients were assessed on cognitive tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CSF markers of Aβ42, tau and p-tau181 were also measured. Worse performance on a wide range of memory and sustained attention tasks were associated with reduced hippocampal volume, higher CSF tau and p-tau181 and increased tau/Aβ42 ratio. Memory tasks were also associated with lower ability to conduct functional activities of daily living, providing a link between AD biomarkers, memory performance and functional outcome. These results suggest that biomarkers of Aβ and tau are strongly related to cognitive performance as assessed by the CANTAB, and have implications for the early detection and characterization of incipient AD.
    Mots-clés : Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid, CANTAB, Cognitive assessment, CSF, Hippocampal volume, Mild cognitive impairment, Prodromal, Tau.

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