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GONDIN Julien

PhD - CNRS research felllow (CR2)

julien.gondin@univ-amu.fr
tel : +33 4 91 32 48 07
fax : +33 4 91 25 65 39
Key Words
- Skeletal muscle, Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
- Nemaline myopathy, rare disease, congenital myopathy,
- Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging
- 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, energy metabolism.

Current Research Interest and projects

My current research interests include the investigation of both acute and chronic effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle function in both animals and humans. I am also focusing on the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in murine models of nemaline myopathy.

Publications

2017

Journal Article

  • CHATEL B., HOURDé C., GONDIN J., FOURé A., LE FUR Y., VILMEN C., BERNARD M., MESSONNIER L. A., BENDAHAN D. “Impaired muscle force production and higher fatigability in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.”. Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases [En ligne]. 11 January 2017. Vol. 63, p. 37-44. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2017.01.004 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Skeletal muscle function has been scarcely investigated in sickle cell disease (SCD) so that the corresponding impact of sickle hemoglobin is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle force production and fatigability in SCD and to identify whether exercise intensity could have a modulatory effect. Ten homozygous sickle cell (HbSS), ten control (HbAA) and ten heterozygous (HbAS) mice were submitted to two stimulation protocols (moderate and intense) to assess force production and fatigability. We showed that specific maximal tetanic force was lower in HbSS mice as compared to other groups. At the onset of the stimulation period, peak force was reduced in HbSS and HbAS mice as compared to HbAA mice. Contrary to the moderate protocol, the intense stimulation protocol was associated with a larger decrease in peak force and rate of force development in HbSS mice as compared to HbAA and HbAS mice. These findings provide in vivo evidence of impaired muscle force production and resistance to fatigue in SCD. These changes are independent of muscle mass. Moreover, SCD is associated with muscle fatigability when exercise intensity is high.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Exercise intensity, msk, Muscle mass, Muscle volume, Rate of force development.

  • FOURé A., DUHAMEL G., VILMEN C., BENDAHAN D., JUBEAU M., GONDIN J. “Fast measurement of the quadriceps femoris muscle transverse relaxation time at high magnetic field using segmented echo-planar imaging.”. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging: JMRI [En ligne]. February 2017. Vol. 45, n°2, p. 356-368. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25355 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: To assess and validate a technique for transverse relaxation time (T2 ) measurements of resting and recovering skeletal muscle following exercise with a high temporal resolution and large volume coverage using segmented spin-echo echo-planar imaging (sSE-EPI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner using a multislice sSE-EPI technique applied at different echo times (TEs). T2 measurements were first validated in vitro in calibrated T2 phantoms (range: 25-152 ms) by comparing sSE-EPI, standard spin-echo (SE), and multislice multiecho (MSME) techniques (using a fitting procedure or a 2-TEs calculation). In vivo measurements of resting T2 quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle were performed with both sSE-EPI and MSME sequences. Finally, sSE-EPI was used to quantify T2 changes in recovering muscle after an exercise. RESULTS: T2 values measured in vitro with sSE-EPI were similar to those assessed with SE (P > 0.05). In vitro and in vivo T2 measurements obtained with sSE-EPI were independent of the T2 determination procedure (P > 0.05). In contrast, both in vitro and in vivo T2 values derived from MSME were significantly different when using 2-TEs calculation as compared to the fitting procedure (P < 0.05). sSE-EPI allowed the detection of increased T2 values in the QF muscle immediately after exercise (+14 ± 9%), while lower T2 values were recorded less than 2 min afterwards (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: sSE-EPI sequence is a relevant method to monitor exercise-induced T2 changes of skeletal muscles over large volume coverage and to detect abnormal patterns of muscle activation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:356-368.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Exercise, MRI, msk, skeletal muscle, spin-echo sequence, T2.

  • WEGRZYK J., RANJEVA J. - P., FOURé A., KAVOUNOUDIAS A., VILMEN C., MATTEI J. - P., GUYE M., MAFFIULETTI N. A., PLACE N., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Specific brain activation patterns associated with two neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocols.”. Scientific Reports [En ligne]. 2 June 2017. Vol. 7, n°1, p. 2742. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03188-9 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) parameters on brain activation has been scarcely investigated. We aimed at comparing two frequently used NMES protocols - designed to vary in the extent of sensory input. Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in sixteen healthy subjects during wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF, 100 Hz-1 ms) and conventional (CONV, 25 Hz-0.05 ms) NMES applied over the triceps surae. Each protocol included 20 isometric contractions performed at 10% of maximal force. Voluntary plantar flexions (VOL) were performed as control trial. Mean force was not different among the three protocols, however, total current charge was higher for WPHF than for CONV. All protocols elicited significant activations of the sensorimotor network, cerebellum and thalamus. WPHF resulted in lower deactivation in the secondary somatosensory cortex and precuneus. Bilateral thalami and caudate nuclei were hyperactivated for CONV. The modulation of the NMES parameters resulted in differently activated/deactivated regions related to total current charge of the stimulation but not to mean force. By targeting different cerebral brain regions, the two NMES protocols might allow for individually-designed rehabilitation training in patients who can no longer execute voluntary movements.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

2016

Journal Article

  • FOURé A., NOSAKA K., GASTALDI M., MATTEI J. - P., BOUDINET H., GUYE M., VILMEN C., LE FUR Y., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on both plasma amino acids concentration and muscle energetics changes resulting from muscle damage: A randomized placebo controlled trial.”. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) [En ligne]. February 2016. Vol. 35, n°1, p. 83-94. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.03.014 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : BACKGROUND & AIMS: Branched-chain amino acids promote muscle-protein synthesis, reduce protein oxidation and have positive effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species scavenging. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on changes in force capacities, plasma amino acids concentration and muscle metabolic alterations after exercise-induced muscle damage. METHODS: (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses were used to follow the changes after such damage. Twenty six young healthy men were randomly assigned to supplemented branched-chain amino acids or placebo group. Knee extensors maximal voluntary isometric force was assessed before and on four days following exercise-induced muscle damage. Concentrations in phosphocreatine [PCr], inorganic phosphate [Pi] and pH were measured during a standardized rest-exercise-recovery protocol before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after exercise-induced muscle damage. RESULTS: No significant difference between groups was found for changes in maximal voluntary isometric force (-24% at D2 and -21% at D4). Plasma alanine concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise-induced muscle damage (+25%) in both groups while concentrations in glycine, histidine, phenylalanine and tyrosine decreased. No difference between groups was found in the increased resting [Pi] (+42% at D2 and +34% at D4), decreased resting pH (-0.04 at D2 and -0.03 at D4) and the slower PCr recovery rate (-18% at D2 and -24% at D4). CONCLUSIONS: The damaged muscle was not able to get benefits out of the increased plasma branched-chain amino acids availability to attenuate changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and muscle metabolic alterations following exercise-induced muscle damage.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Double blind randomized placebo controlled trial, Exercise induced-muscle damage, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, msk.

  • JUBEAU M., GONDIN J. “Methodological considerations for investigating the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on pH heterogeneity.”. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine [En ligne]. 7 December 2016. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26511 > (consulté le no date)

  • LE TROTER A., FOURé A., GUYE M., CONFORT-GOUNY S., MATTEI J. - P., GONDIN J., SALORT-CAMPANA E., BENDAHAN D. “Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.”. Magma (New York, N.Y.) [En ligne]. April 2016. Vol. 29, n°2, p. 245-257. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10334-016-0535-6 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : OBJECTIVES: Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. RESULTS: Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD and SyN registration methods were four templates and a kernel standard deviation ranging between 5 and 8. The segmentation process using a single-atlas-based method was more robust with DSI values higher than 0.9. From the vantage of muscle volume measurements, the multi-atlas-based strategy provided acceptable results regarding the QF muscle as a whole but highly variable results regarding individual muscle. On the contrary, the performance of the single-atlas-based pipeline for individual muscles was highly comparable to the MSeg, thereby indicating that this method would be adequate for longitudinal tracking of muscle volume changes in healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we demonstrated that both multi-atlas and single-atlas approaches were relevant for the segmentation of individual muscles of the QF in healthy subjects. Considering muscle volume measurements, the single-atlas method provided promising perspectives regarding longitudinal quantification of individual muscle volumes.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, Fusion, Individual muscle volume measurements, MRI, msk, Multi-atlas-based segmentation, Non-linear registration, Quadriceps femoris muscle.

  • MARTIN A., GROSPRÊTRE S., VILMEN C., GUYE M., MATTEI J. - P., LE FUR Y., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “The Etiology of Muscle Fatigue Differs between Two Electrical Stimulation Protocols.”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise [En ligne]. August 2016. Vol. 48, n°8, p. 1474-1484. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000930 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: This study aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved in the force reduction induced by two electrical stimulation (ES) protocols that were designed to activate motor units differently. METHODS: The triceps surae of 11 healthy subjects (8 men; age, ~28 yr) was activated using ES applied over the tibial nerve. Two ES protocols (conventional [CONV]: 20 Hz, 0.05 ms vs wide-pulse high-frequency [WPHF]: 80 Hz, 1 ms) were performed and involved 40 trains (6 s on-6 s off) delivered at an intensity (IES) evoking 20% of maximal voluntary contraction. To analyze the mechanical properties of the motor units activated at IES, force-frequency relation was evoked before and after each protocol. H-reflex and M-wave responses evoked by the last stimulation pulse were also assessed during each ES protocol. Electromyographic responses (∑EMG) were recorded after each train to analyze the behavior of the motor units activated at IES. Metabolic variables, including relative concentrations of phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate as well as intracellular pH, were assessed using P-MR spectroscopy during each protocol. RESULTS: Larger H-reflex amplitudes were observed during WPHF as compared with CONV, whereas opposite findings were observed for M-wave amplitudes. Despite this difference, both the force reduction (-26%) and metabolic changes were similar between the two protocols. The CONV protocol induced a rightward shift of the force-frequency relation, whereas a significant reduction of the ∑EMG evoked at IES was observed only for the WPHF. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a decreased number of active motor units mainly contributed to WPHF-induced force decrease, whereas intracellular processes were most likely involved in the force reduction occurring during CONV stimulation.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

  • NEYROUD D., ARMAND S., DE COULON G., DA SILVA S. R. D., WEGRZYK J., GONDIN J., KAYSER B., PLACE N. “Wide-pulse-high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy.”. Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology [En ligne]. February 2016. Vol. 127, n°2, p. 1530-1539. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2015.07.009 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: The present study assesses whether wide-pulse-high-frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could result in extra-force production in cerebral palsy (CP) patients as previously observed in healthy individuals. METHODS: Ten CP and 10 age- and sex-matched control participants underwent plantar flexors NMES. Two to three 10-s WPHF (frequency: 100Hz, pulse duration: 1ms) and conventional (CONV, frequency 25Hz, pulse duration: 50μs) trains as well as two to three burst-like stimulation trains (2s at 25Hz, 2s at 100Hz, 2s at 25Hz; pulse duration: 1ms) were evoked. Resting soleus and gastrocnemii maximal H-reflex amplitude (Hmax) was normalized by maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) to quantify α-motoneuron modulation. RESULTS: Similar Hmax/Mmax ratio was found in CP and control participants. Extra-force generation was observed both in CP (+18±74%) and control individuals (+94±124%) during WPHF (p<0.05). Similar extra-forces were found during burst-like stimulations in both groups (+108±110% in CP and +65±85% in controls, p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Although the mechanisms underlying extra-force production may differ between WPHF and burst-like NMES, similar increases were observed in patients with CP and healthy controls. SIGNIFICANCE: Development of extra-forces in response to WPHF NMES evoked at low stimulation intensity might open new possibilities in neuromuscular rehabilitation.
    Mots-clés : Cerebral palsy, Extra-force, Hmax/Mmax ratio, msk, Neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

2015

Journal Article

  • FOURÉ A., DUHAMEL G., WEGRZYK J., BOUDINET H., MATTEI J. - P., LE TROTER A., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Heterogeneity of muscle damage induced by electrostimulation: a multimodal MRI study.”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise [En ligne]. January 2015. Vol. 47, n°1, p. 166-175. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000397 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) leads to a spatially fixed, synchronous, and superficial motor unit recruitment, which could induce muscle damage. Therefore, the extent of muscle damage and its spatial occurrence were expected to be heterogeneous across and along the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The aim of the present study was to characterize muscle spatial heterogeneity in QF damage after a single bout of isometric NMES using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twenty-five young healthy males participated in this study. MRI investigations consisted of the assessment of muscle volume, transverse relaxation time (T2), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in muscles positioned near the stimulation electrodes (i.e., vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM)) and muscles located outside the stimulated regions (i.e., vastus intermedius and rectus femoris). These measurements were performed 6 d before, and 2 d and 4 d (D4) after the NMES session. RESULTS: For the muscles placed in direct contact with the stimulation electrodes, volume (VL, +8.5%; VM, +3.8%), T2 (VL, +19.5%; VM, +6.7%) and radial diffusivity (λ3) (VL, + 7.3%; VM, +3.7%) significantly increased at D4. Whereas MRI parameter changes were larger for VL as compared with those for other QF muscles at D4, homogeneous alterations were found along all QF muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Isometric NMES induced specific and localized alterations in VL and VM, with heterogeneous damage amplitude among them. Potential effects of unaccustomed intermuscle shear stress during electrically evoked isometric contractions could be a key factor in the spatial occurrence and the extent of damage among QF muscles (especially in VL). The kinetics and extent of MRI changes varied between T2 and diffusion tensor imaging metrics, suggesting the involvement of different physiological processes.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

  • FOURÉ A., LE TROTER A., GUYE M., MATTEI J. - P., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Localization and quantification of intramuscular damage using statistical parametric mapping and skeletal muscle parcellation.”. Scientific Reports [En ligne]. 2015. Vol. 5, p. 18580. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep18580 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : In the present study, we proposed an original and robust methodology which combines the spatial normalization of skeletal muscle images, the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and the use of a specific parcellation in order to accurately localize and quantify the extent of skeletal muscle damage within the four heads of the quadriceps femoris. T2 maps of thigh muscles were characterized before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after 40 maximal isometric electrically-evoked contractions in 25 healthy young males. On the basis of SPM analysis of coregistrated T2 maps, the alterations were similarly detected at D2 and D4 in the superficial and distal regions of the vastus medialis (VM) whereas the proportion of altered muscle was higher in deep muscle regions of the vastus lateralis at D4 (deep: 35 ± 25%, superficial: 23 ± 15%) as compared to D2 (deep: 18 ± 13%, superficial: 17 ± 13%). The present methodology used for the first time on skeletal muscle would be of utmost interest to detect subtle intramuscular alterations not only for the diagnosis of muscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions and clinical treatment strategies.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

  • FOURÉ A., WEGRZYK J., LE FUR Y., MATTEI J. - P., BOUDINET H., VILMEN C., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Impaired mitochondrial function and reduced energy cost as a result of muscle damage.”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise [En ligne]. June 2015. Vol. 47, n°6, p. 1135-1144. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000523 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: Although it has been largely acknowledged that isometric neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) exercise induces larger muscle damage than voluntary contractions, the corresponding effects on muscle energetics remain to be determined. Voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has been reported to have minor slight effects on muscle metabolic response to subsequent dynamic exercise, but the magnitude of muscle energetics alterations for NMES EIMD has never been documented. METHODS: P magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were performed in 13 young healthy males during a standardized rest-exercise-recovery protocol before (D0) and 2 d (D2) and 4 d (D4) after NMES EIMD on knee extensor muscles. Changes in kinetics of phosphorylated metabolite concentrations (i.e., phosphocreatine [PCr], inorganic phosphate [Pi], and adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) and pH were assessed to investigate aerobic and anaerobic rates of ATP production and energy cost of contraction (Ec). RESULTS: Resting [Pi]/[PCr] ratio increased at D2 (+39%) and D4 (+29%), mainly owing to the increased [Pi] (+43% and +32%, respectively), whereas a significant decrease in resting pH was determined (-0.04 pH unit and -0.03 pH unit, respectively). PCr recovery rate decreased at D2 (-21%) and D4 (-23%) in conjunction with a significantly decreased total rate of ATP production at D4 (-18%) mainly owing to an altered aerobic ATP production (-19%). Paradoxically, Ec was decreased at D4 (-21%). CONCLUSION: Overall, NMES EIMD led to intramuscular acidosis in resting muscle and mitochondrial impairment in exercising muscle. Alterations of noncontractile processes and/or adaptive mechanisms to muscle damage might account for the decreased Ec during the dynamic exercise.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.


  • GONDIN J., THÉRET M., DUHAMEL G., PEGAN K., MATHIEU J. R. R., PEYSSONNAUX C., CUVELLIER S., LATROCHE C., CHAZAUD B., BENDAHAN D., MOUNIER R. “Myeloid HIFs Are Dispensable for Resolution of Inflammation during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.”. The Journal of Immunology [En ligne]. 1 April 2015. Vol. 194, n°7, p. 3389-3399. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1401420 > (consulté le 5 October 2015)
    Résumé : Besides their role in cellular responses to hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are involved in innate immunity and also have anti-inflammatory (M2) functions, such as resolution of inflammation preceding healing. Whereas the first steps of the inflammatory response are associated with proinflammatory (M1) macrophages (MPs), resolution of inflammation is associated with anti-inflammatory MPs exhibiting an M2 phenotype. This M1 to M2 sequence is observed during postinjury muscle regeneration, which provides an excellent paradigm to study the resolution of sterile inflammation. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo approaches in murine models, we demonstrated that deletion of hif1a or hif2a in MPs has no impact on the acquisition of an M2 phenotype. Furthermore, using a multiscale methodological approach, we showed that muscles did not require macrophagic hif1a or hif2a to regenerate. These results indicate that macrophagic HIFs do not play a crucial role during skeletal muscle regeneration induced by sterile tissue damage.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.

  • JUBEAU M., LE FUR Y., DUHAMEL G., WEGRZYK J., CONFORT-GOUNY S., VILMEN C., COZZONE P. J., MATTEI J. P., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Localized metabolic and t2 changes induced by voluntary and evoked contractions.”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise [En ligne]. May 2015. Vol. 47, n°5, p. 921-930. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000491 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: This study compared the metabolic and activation changes induced by electrically evoked (neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)) and voluntary (VOL) contractions performed at the same submaximal intensity using P chemical shift imaging (CSI) and T2 mapping investigations. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects were asked to perform both NMES and VOL protocols with the knee extensors (i.e., 232 isometric contractions at 30% of maximal force) inside a 3-T scanner for two experimental sessions. During the first session, metabolic variations, i.e., phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH, were recorded using localized P CSI. During a second session, T2 maps of the knee extensors were obtained at rest and immediately after each exercise. Voxels of interest were selected from the directly stimulated vastus lateralis and from the nondirectly stimulated rectus femoris/vastus intermedius muscles. RESULTS: PCr depletion recorded throughout the NMES session was significantly larger in the vastus lateralis as compared with the rectus femoris/vastus intermedius muscles for both conditions (VOL and NMES). A higher occurrence of Pi splitting and a greater acidosis was found during NMES as compared with VOL exercise, illustrating the heterogeneous activation of both slow and fast muscle fibers. T2 changes were greater after NMES as compared with VOL for both muscles but were not necessarily related to the localized metabolic demand. CONCLUSION: We provided direct evidence that the metabolic demand was strongly related to both the exercise modality and the site of stimulation. On the basis of the occurrence of Pi splitting, we suggested that NMES can activate fast muscle fibers even at low force levels.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.


  • REGINA DIAS DA SILVA S., NEYROUD D., MAFFIULETTI N. A., GONDIN J., PLACE N. “Twitch potentiation induced by two different modalities of neuromuscular electrical stimulation: Implications for motor unit recruitment.”. Muscle & Nerve [En ligne]. 1 March 2015. Vol. 51, n°3, p. 412-418. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.24315 > (consulté le 5 October 2015)
    Résumé : Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that twitch potentiation would be greater following conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (50-µs pulse width and 25-Hz frequency) compared with wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (1-ms, 100-Hz) and voluntary (VOL) contractions, because of specificities in motor unit recruitment (random in CONV vs. random and orderly in WPHF vs. orderly in VOL). Methods: A single twitch was evoked by means of tibial nerve stimulation before and 2 s after CONV, WPHF, and VOL conditioning contractions of the plantar flexors (intensity: 10% maximal voluntary contraction; duration: 10 s) in 13 young healthy subjects. Results: Peak twitch increased (P < 0.05) after CONV (+4.5 ± 4.0%) and WPHF (+3.3 ± 5.9%), with no difference between the 2 modalities, whereas no changes were observed after VOL (+0.8 ± 2.6%). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that presumed differences in motor unit recruitment between WPHF and CONV do not seem to influence twitch potentiation results. Muscle Nerve 51: 412–418, 2015
    Mots-clés : frequency, msk, NMES, plantar flexors, pulse width, twitch potentiation.

  • WEGRZYK J., FOURÉ A., LE FUR Y., MAFFIULETTI N. A., VILMEN C., GUYE M., MATTEI J. - P., PLACE N., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans.”. PloS One [En ligne]. 2015. Vol. 10, n°11, p. e0143972. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143972 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies) induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL). In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF) NMES might elicit-at least in some subjects (i.e., responders)-a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms), WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI) was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr) was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI's during WPHF (99 ± 37 ×103 N.s) than non-responders (26 ± 12 ×103 N.s). For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s) was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s) but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s). Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16%) and CONV (-25%) for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality-at least in this subgroup of subjects-by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions.
    Mots-clés : crmbm, msk.
  • WEGRZYK J., FOURE A., VILMEN C., GHATTAS B., MAFFIULETTI N. A., MATTEI J. - P., PLACE N., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Extra Forces induced by wide-pulse, high-frequency electrical stimulation: Occurrence, magnitude, variability and underlying mechanisms.”. Clinical Neurophysiology. July 2015. Vol. 126, n°7, p. 1400-1412.
    Résumé : Objective: In contrast to conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), the use of "wide-pulse, high-frequencies" (WPHF) can generate higher forces than expected by the direct activation of motor axons alone. We aimed at investigating the occurrence, magnitude, variability and underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of these "Extra Forces" (EF). Methods: Electrically-evoked isometric plantar flexion force was recorded in 42 healthy subjects. Additionally, twitch potentiation, H-reflex and M-wave responses were assessed in 13 participants. CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms) and WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) NMES consisted of five stimulation trains (20 s on-90 s off). Results: K-means clustering analysis disclosed a responder rate of almost 60%. Within this group of responders, force significantly increased from 4% to 16% of the maximal voluntary contraction force and H-reflexes were depressed after WPHF NMES. In contrast, non-responders showed neither EF nor H-reflex depression. Twitch potentiation and resting EMG data were similar between groups. Interestingly, a large inter-and intrasubject variability of EF was observed. Conclusion: The responder percentage was overestimated in previous studies. Significance: This study proposes a novel methodological framework for unraveling the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in EF and provides further evidence for a central contribution to EF in responders. (C) 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Cluster Analysis, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, EMG, Evoked Potentials, Extra Forces, Female, H-Reflex, Humans, Male, msk, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Strength, Muscle, Skeletal, NMES, NMES, Extra Forces, Triceps surae, Responder, EMG, plateau-like behavior, spinal-cord-injury, post-activation depression, human skeletal-muscle, catch-like property, soleus h-reflex, neuromuscular stimulation, triceps surae, m-waves, presynaptic inhibition, Responder, Single-Blind Method, Triceps surae.

2014

Journal Article

  • FOURÉ A., NOSAKA K., WEGRZYK J., DUHAMEL G., LE TROTER A., BOUDINET H., MATTEI J. - P., VILMEN C., JUBEAU M., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Time course of central and peripheral alterations after isometric neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced muscle damage.”. PloS One [En ligne]. 2014. Vol. 9, n°9, p. e107298. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107298 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC), peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db10) and 100 Hz (Db100), its ratio (10∶100), voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2) and four (D4) days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db10 was higher than in Db100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (-12%) in the 10∶100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (-5%) and was still depressed at D4 (-5%). Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6%) and D4 (9%). Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db100) were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage.
    Mots-clés : Adult, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Exercise, Humans, Isometric Contraction, Knee, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fatigue, Neuromuscular Diseases.

  • GINESTE C., OTTENHEIJM C., LE FUR Y., BANZET S., PECCHI E., VILMEN C., COZZONE P. J., KOULMANN N., HARDEMAN E. C., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Alterations at the cross-bridge level are associated with a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy.”. PloS One [En ligne]. 2014. Vol. 9, n°9, p. e109066. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109066 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Nemaline myopathy is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. The first disease causing mutation (Met9Arg) was identified in the gene encoding α-tropomyosinslow gene (TPM3). Considering the conflicting findings of the previous studies on the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the TPM3Met9Arg mutation, we investigated carefully the effect of the Met9Arg mutation in 8-9 month-old Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice on muscle function using a multiscale methodological approach including skinned muscle fibers analysis and in vivo investigations by magnetic resonance imaging and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. While in vitro maximal force production was reduced in Tg(TPM3)Met9Arg mice as compared to controls, in vivo measurements revealed an improved mechanical performance in the transgenic mice as compared to the former. The reduced in vitro muscle force might be related to alterations occuring at the cross-bridges level with muscle-specific underlying mechanisms. In vivo muscle improvement was not associated with any changes in either muscle volume or energy metabolism. Our findings indicate that TPM3(Met9Arg) mutation leads to a mild muscle weakness in vitro related to an alteration at the cross-bridges level and a paradoxical gain of muscle function in vivo. These results clearly point out that in vitro alterations are muscle-dependent and do not necessarily translate into similar changes in vivo.
    Mots-clés : crmbm.

  • GONDIN J., VILMEN C., COZZONE P. J., BENDAHAN D., DUHAMEL G. “High-field (11.75T) multimodal MR imaging of exercising hindlimb mouse muscles using a non-invasive combined stimulation and force measurement device.”. NMR in biomedicine [En ligne]. August 2014. Vol. 27, n°8, p. 870-879. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3122 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : We have designed and constructed an experimental set-up allowing electrical stimulation of hindlimb mouse muscles and the corresponding force measurements at high-field (11.75T). We performed high-resolution multimodal MRI (including T2 -weighted imaging, angiography and diffusion) and analysed the corresponding MRI changes in response to a stimulation protocol. Mice were tested twice over a 1-week period to investigate the reliability of mechanical measurements and T2 changes associated with the stimulation protocol. Additionally, angiographic images were obtained before and immediately after the stimulation protocol. Finally, multislice diffusion imaging was performed before, during and immediately after the stimulation session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated on the basis of diffusion weighted images (DWI). Both force production and T2 values were highly reproducible as illustrated by the low coefficient of variation (<8%) and high intraclass correlation coefficient (≥0.75) values. Maximum intensity projection angiographic images clearly showed a strong vascular effect resulting from the stimulation protocol. Although a motion sensitive imaging sequence was used (echo planar imaging) and in spite of the strong muscle contractions, motion artifacts were minimal for DWI recorded under exercising conditions, thereby underlining the robustness of the measurements. Mean ADC values increased under exercising conditions and were higher during the recovery period as compared with the corresponding control values. The proposed experimental approach demonstrates accurate high-field multimodal MRI muscle investigations at a preclinical level which is of interest for monitoring the severity and/or the progression of neuromuscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions.
    Mots-clés : crmbm.

  • NEYROUD D., DODD D., GONDIN J., MAFFIULETTI N. A., KAYSER B., PLACE N. “Wide pulse-high frequency neuromuscular stimulation of triceps surae induces greater muscle fatigue as compared to conventional stimulation.”. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985) [En ligne]. 27 March 2014. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01015.2013 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : We compared the extent and origin of muscle fatigue induced by short pulse-low frequency (CONV) and wide pulse-high frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation. We expected CONV contractions to mainly originate from depolarization of axonal terminal branches (spatially determined muscle fiber recruitment) and WPHF contractions to be partly produced via a central pathway (motor unit recruitment according to size principle). Greater neuromuscular fatigue was therefore expected following CONV in comparison to WPHF. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent 20 WPHF (1 ms-100 Hz) and CONV (50 µs-25 Hz) evoked isometric triceps surae contractions (work:rest periods 20:40 s) at an initial target of 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. Force-time integral of the 20 evoked contractions (FTI) used as main index of muscle fatigue; MVC force loss was also quantified. Central and peripheral fatigue were assessed by voluntary activation level (VAL) and paired stimulation amplitudes, respectively. FTI in WPHF was significantly lower than in CONV (median values: 806 vs. 1794 N.s). The reductions in MVC force (WPHF: -7.0 ± 2.7%; CONV: -6.2 ± 2.5%; p<0.01) and paired stimulation amplitude (WPHF: -8.0 ± 4.0%; CONV: -7.4 ± 6.1%; p<0.001) were similar between conditions, whereas no change was observed for VAL (p>0.05). Overall, our results showed a different motor unit recruitment pattern between the two NMES modalities with a lower FTI indicating greater muscle fatigue for WPHF, possibly limiting the presumed benefits for rehabilitation programs.

2013

Journal Article

  • GINESTE C., DE WINTER J. M., KOHL C., WITT C. C., GIANNESINI B., BROHM K., LE FUR Y., GRETZ N., VILMEN C., PECCHI E., JUBEAU M., COZZONE P. J., STIENEN G. J. M., GRANZIER H., LABEIT S., OTTENHEIJM C. A. C., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “In vivo and in vitro investigations of heterozygous nebulin knock-out mice disclose a mild skeletal muscle phenotype.”. Neuromuscular disorders: NMD [En ligne]. April 2013. Vol. 23, n°4, p. 357-369. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2012.12.011 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Nemaline myopathy is the most common congenital skeletal muscle disease, and mutations in the nebulin gene account for 50% of all cases. Recent studies suggest that the disease severity might be related to the nebulin expression levels. Considering that mutations in the nebulin gene are typically recessive, one would expect that a single functional nebulin allele would maintain nebulin protein expression which would result in preserved skeletal muscle function. We investigated skeletal muscle function of heterozygous nebulin knock-out (i.e., nebulin(+/-)) mice using a multidisciplinary approach including protein and gene expression analysis and combined in vivo and in vitro force measurements. Skeletal muscle anatomy and energy metabolism were studied strictly non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging and 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Maximal force production was reduced by around 16% in isolated muscle of nebulin(+/-) mice while in vivo force generating capacity was preserved. Muscle weakness was associated with a shift toward a slower proteomic phenotype, but was not related to nebulin protein deficiency or to an impaired energy metabolism. Further studies would be warranted in order to determine the mechanisms leading to a mild skeletal muscle phenotype resulting from the expression of a single nebulin allele.
    Mots-clés : Animals, crmbm, Disease Models, Animal, Gene Expression, Heterozygote, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Male, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Muscle Proteins, Muscle Strength, Muscle Weakness, Muscle, Skeletal, Mutation, Myopathies, Nemaline, Phenotype, Severity of Illness Index.
    Note Note
    The following values have no corresponding Zotero field:<br/>Author Address: Aix-Marseille Universite, CRMBM, 13005 Marseille, France; CNRS, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), 13005 Marseille, France.<br/>C2 - Muscle <br/>ET - 2013/02/05<br/>
    Note Note
    <p>Gineste, C<br/>De Winter, J M<br/>Kohl, C<br/>Witt, C C<br/>Giannesini, B<br/>Brohm, K<br/>Le Fur, Y<br/>Gretz, N<br/>Vilmen, C<br/>Pecchi, E<br/>Jubeau, M<br/>Cozzone, P J<br/>Stienen, G J M<br/>Granzier, H<br/>Labeit, S<br/>Ottenheijm, C A C<br/>Bendahan, D<br/>Gondin, J<br/>England<br/>Neuromuscular disorders : NMD<br/>Neuromuscul Disord. 2013 Apr;23(4):357-69. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2012.12.011. Epub 2013 Feb 1.</p>

  • GINESTE C., DUHAMEL G., LE FUR Y., VILMEN C., COZZONE P. J., NOWAK K. J., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Multimodal MRI and (31)P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(Asp286Gly) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Provide Evidence of Impaired In Vivo Muscle Function, Altered Muscle Structure and Disturbed Energy Metabolism.”. PloS one [En ligne]. 2013. Vol. 8, n°8, p. e72294. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072294 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital disease of skeletal muscle, can be caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) (~25% of all NM cases and up to 50% of severe forms of NM). Muscle function of the recently generated transgenic mouse model carrying the human Asp286Gly mutation in the ACTA1 gene (Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly)) has been mainly investigated in vitro. Therefore, we aimed at providing a comprehensive picture of the in vivo hindlimb muscle function of Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly) mice by combining strictly noninvasive investigations. Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles, intramuscular fat volumes) and microstructure were studied using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon, T2, Diffusion Tensor Imaging [DTI]). Energy metabolism was studied using 31-phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (1-150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (6 min-1.7 Hz). Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly) mice showed a mild muscle weakness as illustrated by the reduction of both absolute (30%) and specific (15%) maximal force production. Dixon MRI did not show discernable fatty infiltration in Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly) mice indicating that this mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings. Increased T2 values were observed in Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly) mice and might reflect the occurrence of muscle degeneration/regeneration process. Interestingly, T2 values were linearly related to muscle weakness. DTI experiments indicated lower λ2 and λ3 values in Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly) mice, which might be associated to muscle atrophy and/or the presence of histological anomalies. Finally (31)P-MRS investigations illustrated an increased anaerobic energy cost of contraction in Tg(ACTA1)(Asp286Gly) mice, which might be ascribed to contractile and non-contractile processes. Overall, we provide a unique set of information about the anatomic, metabolic and functional consequences of the Asp286Gly mutation that might be considered as relevant biomarkers for monitoring the severity and/or the progression of NM and for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions.
    Mots-clés : crmbm.

  • GINESTE C., LE FUR Y., VILMEN C., LE TROTER A., PECCHI E., COZZONE P. J., HARDEMAN E. C., BENDAHAN D., GONDIN J. “Combined MRI and (31)P-MRS Investigations of the ACTA1(H40Y) Mouse Model of Nemaline Myopathy Show Impaired Muscle Function and Altered Energy Metabolism.”. PloS one [En ligne]. 2013. Vol. 8, n°4, p. e61517. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061517 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Nemaline myopathy (NM) is the most common disease entity among non-dystrophic skeletal muscle congenital diseases. Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) account for ∼25% of all NM cases and are the most frequent cause of severe forms of NM. So far, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM patients remain unclear. Additionally, recent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies reported a progressive fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle with a specific muscle involvement in patients with ACTA1 mutations. We investigated strictly noninvasively the gastrocnemius muscle function of a mouse model carrying a mutation in the ACTA1 gene (H40Y). Skeletal muscle anatomy (hindlimb muscles and fat volumes) and energy metabolism were studied using MRI and (31)Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skeletal muscle contractile performance was investigated while applying a force-frequency protocol (from 1-150 Hz) and a fatigue protocol (80 stimuli at 40 Hz). H40Y mice showed a reduction of both absolute (-40%) and specific (-25%) maximal force production as compared to controls. Interestingly, muscle weakness was associated with an improved resistance to fatigue (+40%) and an increased energy cost. On the contrary, the force frequency relationship was not modified in H40Y mice and the extent of fatty infiltration was minor and not different from the WT group. We concluded that the H40Y mouse model does not reproduce human MRI findings but shows a severe muscle weakness which might be related to an alteration of intrinsic muscular properties. The increased energy cost in H40Y mice might be related to either an impaired mitochondrial function or an alteration at the cross-bridges level. Overall, we provided a unique set of anatomic, metabolic and functional biomarkers that might be relevant for monitoring the progression of NM disease but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions at a preclinical level.
    Mots-clés : Actins, Animals, crmbm, Energy Metabolism, Female, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mice, Mice, Mutant Strains, Muscle, Skeletal, Myopathies, Nemaline.

2012

Journal Article

  • FABRE J. - B., MARTIN V., GONDIN J., COTTIN F., GRELOT L. “Effect of playing surface properties on neuromuscular fatigue in tennis.”. Medicine and science in sports and exercise [En ligne]. November 2012. Vol. 44, n°11, p. 2182-2189. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182618cf9 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the playing surface properties on the development of neuromuscular fatigue in tennis. METHODS: Ten subjects played randomly two tennis matches on hard court (HARD) and clay court (CLAY) for an effective playing duration of 45 min (i.e., corresponding approximately to a 3-h game). Before and after each match, the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the plantar flexors, the maximal voluntary activation level, the maximal compound muscle action characteristic, and the EMG activity were determined on the soleus (SOL) and lateralis gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. Tetanic and single stimulations were also delivered to evaluate the presence of low-frequency fatigue and contractile impairment. Finally, reflex responses were evoked on the relaxed muscle (H-reflex) and during MVC (H-reflex and V-wave). RESULTS: Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant difference between playing surfaces. MVC was similarly reduced after the game (HARD, -9.1% ± 8.7%; CLAY, -4.3% ± 19.9%) and was associated with alterations of the contractile properties of the plantar flexor muscles. The implication of central factors was less clear, as evidenced by the significant reduction (P < 0.05) of the H-reflex on the relaxed LG (HARD, -16.2% ± 33.3%; CLAY, -23.9% ± 54.0%) and SOL (HARD, -16.1% ± 48.9%; CLAY, -34.9% ± 35.9%) and the nonsignificant reduction of the activation level. In addition, the reflex responses evoked during MVC were not significantly modified by the exercise. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the ground surface properties influence neither the extent nor the origin of neuromuscular fatigue in tennis. The moderate force decrement observed in the current study was mainly associated with peripheral fatigue.
    Mots-clés : Adult, crmbm, Electromyography, Floors and Floorcoverings, H-Reflex, Humans, Isometric Contraction, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fatigue, Neuromuscular Monitoring, Tennis, Young Adult.

  • PORCELLI S., MARZORATI M., PUGLIESE L., ADAMO S., GONDIN J., BOTTINELLI R., GRASSI B. “Lack of functional effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in healthy humans.”. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985) [En ligne]. October 2012. Vol. 113, n°7, p. 1101-1109. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01627.2011 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : A recent study has demonstrated that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) determines, in vitro, a fast-to-slow shift in the metabolic profile of muscle fibers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if, in the same subjects, these changes would translate, in vivo, into an enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. Seven young men were tested (cycle ergometer) during incremental exercises up to voluntary exhaustion and moderate and heavy constant-load exercises (CLE). Measurements were carried out before and after an 8-wk training program by isometric bilateral NMES (quadriceps muscles), which induced an ∼25% increase in maximal isometric force. Breath-by-breath pulmonary O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) and vastus lateralis oxygenation indexes (by near-infrared spectroscopy) were determined. Skeletal muscle fractional O(2) extraction was estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy on the basis of changes in concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin + myoglobin. Values obtained at exhaustion were considered "peak" values. The following functional evaluation variables were unaffected by NMES: peak Vo(2); gas exchange threshold; the Vo(2) vs. work rate relationship (O(2) cost of cycling); changes in concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin + myoglobin vs. work rate relationship (related to the matching between O(2) delivery and Vo(2)); peak fractional O(2) extraction; Vo(2) kinetics (during moderate and heavy CLE) and the amplitude of its slow component (during heavy CLE). Thus NMES did not affect several variables of functional evaluation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. Muscle hypertrophy induced by NMES could impair peripheral O(2) diffusion, possibly counterbalancing, in vivo, the fast-to-slow phenotypic changes that were observed in vitro, in a previous work, in the same subjects of the present study.
    Mots-clés : crmbm.

2011

Journal Article

  • GONDIN J., BROCCA L., BELLINZONA E., D'ANTONA G., MAFFIULETTI N. A., MIOTTI D., PELLEGRINO M. A., BOTTINELLI R. “Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training induces atypical adaptations of the human skeletal muscle phenotype: a functional and proteomic analysis.”. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985) [En ligne]. February 2011. Vol. 110, n°2, p. 433-450. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00914.2010 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The aim of the present study was to define the chronic effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the neuromuscular properties of human skeletal muscle. Eight young healthy male subjects were subjected to 25 sessions of isometric NMES of the quadriceps muscle over an 8-wk period. Needle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after training. The training status, myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution, and global protein pattern, as assessed by proteomic analysis, widely varied among subjects at baseline and prompted the identification of two subgroups: an "active" (ACT) group, which performed regular exercise and had a slower MHC profile, and a sedentary (SED) group, which did not perform any exercise and had a faster MHC profile. Maximum voluntary force and neural activation significantly increased after NMES in both groups (+∼30% and +∼10%, respectively). Both type 1 and 2 fibers showed significant muscle hypertrophy. After NMES, both groups showed a significant shift from MHC-2X toward MHC-2A and MHC-1, i.e., a fast-to-slow transition. Proteomic maps showing ∼500 spots were obtained before and after training in both groups. Differentially expressed proteins were identified and grouped into functional categories. The most relevant changes regarded 1) myofibrillar proteins, whose changes were consistent with a fast-to-slow phenotype shift and with a strengthening of the cytoskeleton; 2) energy production systems, whose changes indicated a glycolytic-to-oxidative shift in the metabolic profile; and 3) antioxidant defense systems, whose changes indicated an enhancement of intracellular defenses against reactive oxygen species. The adaptations in the protein pattern of the ACT and SED groups were different but were, in both groups, typical of both resistance (i.e., strength gains and hypertrophy) and endurance (i.e., a fast-to-slow shift in MHC and metabolic profile) training. These training-induced adaptations can be ascribed to the peculiar motor unit recruitment pattern associated with NMES.
    Mots-clés : Adaptation, Physiological, Adult, crmbm, Electric Stimulation Therapy, Humans, Isometric Contraction, Male, Muscle Proteins, Muscle, Skeletal, Phenotype, Proteome.

  • GONDIN J., COZZONE P. J., BENDAHAN D. “Is high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation a suitable tool for muscle performance improvement in both healthy humans and athletes?”. European journal of applied physiology [En ligne]. October 2011. Vol. 111, n°10, p. 2473-2487. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2101-2 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : We aimed at providing an overview of the currently acknowledged benefits and limitations of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training programs in both healthy individuals and in recreational and competitive athletes regarding muscle performance. Typical NMES resistance exercises are performed under isometric conditions and involve the application of electrical stimuli delivered as intermittent high frequencies trains (>40-50 Hz) through surface electrodes. NMES has been acknowledged as an efficient modality leading to significant improvements in isometric maximal voluntary strength. However, the resulting changes in dynamic strength, motor performance skills and explosive movements (i.e., jump performance, sprint ability) are still ambiguous and could only be obtained when NMES is combined with voluntary dynamic exercise such as plyometrics. Additionally, the effects of NMES on muscle fatigability are still poorly understood and required further investigations. While NMES effectiveness could be partially related to several external adjustable factors such as training intensity, current characteristics (e.g., intensity, pulse duration…) or the design of training protocols (number of contractions per session, number of sessions per week…), anatomical specificities (e.g., morphological organization of the axonal branches within the muscle) appear as the main factor accounting for the differences in NMES response. Overall, NMES cannot be considered as a surrogate training method, but rather as an adjunct to voluntary resistance training. The combination of these two training modalities should optimally improve muscle function.
    Mots-clés : Athletes, Athletic Performance, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Health, Humans, Motor Neurons, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle, Skeletal, Physical Education and Training, Physical Endurance, Resistance Training.

  • GONDIN J., GIANNESINI B., VILMEN C., LE FUR Y., COZZONE P. J., BENDAHAN D. “Effects of a single bout of isometric neuromuscular electrical stimulation on rat gastrocnemius muscle: a combined functional, biochemical and MRI investigation.”. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology [En ligne]. June 2011. Vol. 21, n°3, p. 525-532. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.01.006 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : While muscle damage resulting from electrically-induced muscle isometric contractions has been reported in humans, animal studies have failed to illustrate similar deleterious effects and it remains to be determined whether these conflicting results are related to differences regarding experimental procedures or to species. We have investigated in vivo, in rat gastrocnemius muscles, using experimental conditions as close as possible to those used in humans (i.e., muscle length, number of contractions, stimulated muscle), the effects of a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Maximal tetanic force was measured before, immediately after and 1h and 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days after NMES. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements, including volume of gastrocnemius muscles and proton transverse relaxation time (T(2)) were performed at baseline and 3, 7, and 14 days after the NMES session. Control animals did not perform any exercise and measurements were recorded at the same time points. For both groups, blood creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured within the first 3 days that followed the initial evaluation. Maximal tetanic force decreased immediately after NMES whereas measurements performed 1h and the days afterwards were similar to the baseline values. CK activity, muscle volume and T(2) values were similar throughout the experimental protocol between the two groups. Under carefully controlled experimental conditions, isometric NMES per se did not induce muscle damage in rat gastrocnemius muscles on the contrary to what has been repeatedly reported in humans. Further experiments would then be warranted in order to clearly delineate these differences and to better understand the physiological events associated with muscle damage resulting from NMES-induced isometric contractions.
    Mots-clés : Animals, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Isometric Contraction, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle, Skeletal, Physical Endurance, Rats, Rats, Wistar.

2010

Journal Article

  • GONDIN J., GIANNESINI B., VILMEN C., DALMASSO C., LE FUR Y., COZZONE P. J., BENDAHAN D. “Effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and metabolic cost during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation.”. Muscle & nerve [En ligne]. May 2010. Vol. 41, n°5, p. 667-678. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.21572 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : We have investigated the effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and energy metabolism in rat gastrocnemius muscle during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Electrical pulses were delivered at 100 Hz (1-ms pulse duration) and 20 Hz (5-ms pulse duration) for the high (HF) and low (LF) frequency protocols, respectively. As a standardization procedure, the averaged stimulation intensity, the averaged total charge, the initial peak torque, the duty cycle, the contraction duration and the torque-time integral were similar in both protocols. Fatigue was assessed using two testing trains delivered at a frequency of 100 Hz and 20 Hz before and after each protocol. Metabolic changes were investigated in vivo using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and in vitro in freeze-clamped muscles. Both LF and HF NMES protocols induced the same decrease in testing trains and metabolic changes. We conclude that, under carefully controlled and comparable conditions, the use of low stimulation frequency and long pulse duration do not minimize the occurrence of muscle fatigue or affect the corresponding stimulation-induced metabolic changes so that this combination of stimulation parameters would not be adequate in the context of rehabilitation.
    Mots-clés : Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Electric Stimulation Therapy, Energy Metabolism, Exercise Tolerance, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Male, Motor Neurons, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Muscle Weakness, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuromuscular Junction, Peripheral Nerves, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Time Factors.

  • JUBEAU M., GONDIN J., MARTIN A., VAN HOECKE J., MAFFIULETTI N. A. “Differences in twitch potentiation between voluntary and stimulated quadriceps contractions of equal intensity.”. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports [En ligne]. February 2010. Vol. 20, n°1, p. e56-62. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00897.x > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : This study compared the extent of twitch and M-wave potentiation (POT) between voluntary and stimulated quadriceps contractions performed at the same intensity. Sixteen healthy men completed 10-s isometric knee extensions at 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction torque under electrical stimulation and voluntary conditions. Single stimuli were delivered to the femoral nerve to evoke twitches before (PRE) and from 3 to 600 s after the end of each conditioning contraction. Changes in twitch contractile properties and M-wave characteristics were compared between the conditions. The extent of twitch peak torque POT was smaller for the stimulated (122+/-20% of PRE) than for the voluntary condition (133+/-20% of PRE). The magnitude of POT for the maximal rate of twitch torque development was also smaller for the stimulated trial. Rectus femoris M-wave amplitude was potentiated by the voluntary but not by the stimulated contraction. It was concluded that stimulated contractions resulted in smaller twitch and M-wave POT than voluntary contractions, despite equivalent torque output and duration. The spatially and temporally fixed recruitment of motor units with electrical stimulation and therefore the lower number of activated motor units compared with voluntary actions of equal intensity could explain the present findings.
    Mots-clés : Adult, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Femoral Nerve, Humans, Male, Motor Neurons, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Quadriceps Muscle, Recruitment, Neurophysiological, Torque, Young Adult.

2009

Journal Article

  • MARTIN V., DOUSSET E., LAURIN J., GONDIN J., GAUTIER M., DECHERCHI P. “Group III and IV muscle afferent discharge patterns after repeated lengthening and shortening actions.”. Muscle & nerve [En ligne]. November 2009. Vol. 40, n°5, p. 827-837. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.21368 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that group III and IV muscle afferent activity would differ after concentric- and eccentric-type fatiguing tasks. Tibialis anterior afferent activities from adult rats were measured in three conditions: before and after a rest period (C), and after concentric (CC) or eccentric (EC) exercise. Specific activators were used to elicit increases in afferent discharge rates, i.e., electrically induced fatigue (EIF), or potassium chloride (KCl) and lactic acid (LA) injections. After the rest period (POST-condition), the control group displayed a pattern of response to stimuli similar to that obtained in baseline condition (PRE-condition). However, responses were significantly different in the exercise groups: afferent responses were blunted in the CC group and were almost suppressed in the EC group. These results demonstrate that the type of muscular contraction involved in the fatiguing task can affect group III and IV afferent fiber activity differently and, potentially, can differentially affect the regulation of central motor command.
    Mots-clés : Afferent Pathways, Animals, Electric Stimulation, Female, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle, Skeletal, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley.

2008

Journal Article

  • LAURIN J., GONDIN J., DOUSSET E., DECHERCHI P. “Effect of tenotomy on metabosensitive afferent fibers from tibialis anterior muscle.”. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale [En ligne]. March 2008. Vol. 186, n°1, p. 87-92. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-007-1210-y > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : In previous studies, the effect of tenotomy had been focused mainly on muscle properties (typology, capillarity, force, etc.). Little attention was paid to the metabosensitive fibers from groups III and IV (also called 'ergoreceptors' or 'exercise receptors'). In the current study, we assessed the metabosensitive responses in a rat model with tenotomized muscle. Two groups of animals were included: a control group (C, no tenotomy) and a tenotomized group (Tn, transection of the distal tendon of the left tibialis anterior). After 10 weeks, we observed in the Tn group a significant decrease in the metabosensitive afferent responses to electrically induced fatigue and to chemical agents (KCl and lactic acid), known to activate the metabosensitive fibers. These data indicate that (1) tenotomy induces an alteration in the metabosensitive response and consequently modifies the sensory-motor loop; (2) metabosensitive fibers may have a secondary role in tenotomy-induced muscle properties alterations. Additional studies are required to improve our understanding of the metabosensitive responses after tendon or nerve injury.
    Mots-clés : Afferent Pathways, Animals, Electric Stimulation, Hindlimb, Joints, Male, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle, Skeletal, Nerve Fibers, Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew, Tendons.

2007

Journal Article

  • JUBEAU M., GONDIN J., MARTIN A., SARTORIO A., MAFFIULETTI N. A. “Random motor unit activation by electrostimulation.”. International journal of sports medicine [En ligne]. November 2007. Vol. 28, n°11, p. 901-904. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-965075 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : Whether the involvement of motor units is different between surface neuromuscular electrostimulation and voluntary activation remains an unresolved issue. The aim of this pilot study was to verify if motor unit activation during electrostimulation is nonselective/random (i.e., without obvious sequencing related to fibre type), as recently suggested by Gregory and Bickel [6]. Sixteen healthy men randomly performed submaximal isometric contractions (10-s duration) of the quadriceps femoris muscle at 20, 40 and 60 % of maximal voluntary torque under both stimulated and voluntary conditions. During the contractions, paired stimuli were delivered to the femoral nerve (twitch interpolation technique) and the characteristics of the superimposed doublet were compared between the two conditions. For each torque level, time-to-peak torque was significantly longer (p range = 0.05 - 0.0002) during electrostimulation compared to voluntary contractions. Moreover, time-to-peak torque during voluntary trials decreased significantly when increasing the torque level from 20 to 60 % of maximal voluntary torque (p range = 0.03 - 0.0001), whereas it was unchanged during electrostimulation. In conclusion, over-the-muscle electrostimulation would neither result in motor unit recruitment according to Henneman's size principle nor would it result in a reversal in voluntary recruitment order. During electrostimulation, muscle fibres are activated without obvious sequencing related to fibre type.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Electric Stimulation, Humans, Isometric Contraction, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Muscle, Skeletal, Pilot Projects, Quadriceps Muscle, Recruitment, Neurophysiological, Torque.

  • JUBEAU M., ZORY R., GONDIN J., MARTIN A., MAFFIULETTI N. A. “Effect of electrostimulation training-detraining on neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms.”. Neuroscience letters [En ligne]. 31 August 2007. Vol. 424, n°1, p. 41-46. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.07.018 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training and subsequent detraining on neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms. Ten young healthy men completed one NMES fatigue protocol before and after a NMES training program of 4 weeks and again after 4 weeks of detraining. Muscle fatigue (maximal voluntary torque loss), central fatigue (activation failure), and peripheral fatigue (transmission failure and contractile failure) of the plantar flexor muscles were assessed by using a series of electrically evoked and voluntary contractions with concomitant electromyographic and torque recordings. At baseline, maximal voluntary torque decreased significantly with fatigue (P<0.001), due to both activation and transmission failure. After detraining, maximal voluntary torque loss was significantly reduced (P<0.05). In the same way, the relative decrease in muscle activation after training and detraining was significantly lower compared to baseline values (P<0.05). Short-term NMES training-detraining of the plantar flexor muscles significantly reduced the muscle fatigue associated to one single NMES exercise session. This was mainly attributable to a reduction in activation failure, i.e., lower central fatigue, probably as a result of subject's accommodation to pain and discomfort during NMES.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Electric Stimulation Therapy, Electromyography, Exercise, Exercise Tolerance, Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic, Humans, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle Strength, Muscle Weakness, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuromuscular Junction, Physical Fitness, Torque.

2006

Journal Article

  • GONDIN J., DUCLAY J., MARTIN A. “Neural drive preservation after detraining following neuromuscular electrical stimulation training.”. Neuroscience letters [En ligne]. 6 December 2006. Vol. 409, n°3, p. 210-214. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2006.09.045 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The purpose of the study was to investigate the behaviour of the central nervous system when 5 weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training was followed by 5 weeks of detraining. Nineteen males were divided into the neuromuscular electrostimulated group (EG, n=12) and the control group (CG, n=7). The training program consisted of 15 sessions of isometric NMES over a 5-week period. The EG subjects were tested before training (PRE), after 5 weeks of NMES training (POST) and after 5 weeks of detraining (DE) while CG subjects were only tested at PRE and at POST. Soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemii (GAS) maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). SOL and GAS V-wave were recorded by supramaximal stimulation delivered during MVC. SOL and GAS electromyographic (EMG) activity as well as muscle activation were also assessed during MVC. After training, plantar flexor MVC increased significantly by 22% (P<0.001). Torque gains were associated with an increase in muscle activation (P<0.05), SOL and GAS normalized EMG activity (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and V/M(sup) ratios (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). No significant changes occurred in any of these parameters between POST and DE. H(max)/M(max) and H(sup)/M(sup) ratios for both muscles were unchanged after both the training and detraining periods. In conclusion, the NMES training-induced neural adaptations were maintained after detraining, suggesting that neural changes are long-lasting and did not affect the elements of H-reflex pathways.
    Mots-clés : Adaptation, Physiological, Adult, Ankle Joint, crmbm, Electric Stimulation, Evoked Potentials, Motor, H-Reflex, Humans, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuronal Plasticity, Physical Exertion, Physical Fitness, Time Factors.

  • GONDIN J., DUCLAY J., MARTIN A. “Soleus- and gastrocnemii-evoked V-wave responses increase after neuromuscular electrical stimulation training.”. Journal of neurophysiology [En ligne]. June 2006. Vol. 95, n°6, p. 3328-3335. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01002.2005 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The aim of the study was to use combined longitudinal measurements of soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemii evoked V-wave and H-reflex responses to determine the site of adaptations within the central nervous system induced by 5 wk of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training of the plantar flexor muscles. Nineteen healthy males subjects were divided into a neuromuscular electrostimulated group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 7). The training program consisted of 15 sessions of isometric NMES over a 5-wk period. All subjects were tested before and after the 5-wk period. SOL, lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). During MVC, a supramaximal stimulus was delivered that allowed us to record the V-wave peak-to-peak amplitudes from all three muscles. The SOL, LG, and MG electromyographic (EMG) activity as well as muscle activation (twitch interpolation technique) were also quantified during MVC. After training, plantar flexor MVC increased significantly by 22% (P < 0.001). Torque gains were accompanied by an increase in muscle activation (+11%, P < 0.05), SOL, LG, and MG normalized EMG activity (+51, +54, and +60%, respectively, P < 0.05) and V/M(sup) ratios (+81, +76, and +97%, respectively, P < 0.05). H(max)/M(max) and H(sup)/M(sup) ratios for all three muscles were unchanged after training. In conclusion, the increase in voluntary torque after 5 wk of NMES training could be ascribed to an increased volitional drive from the supraspinal centers and/or adaptations occurring at the spinal level.
    Mots-clés : Adaptation, Physiological, Adult, Ankle Joint, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Evoked Potentials, Motor, H-Reflex, Humans, Isometric Contraction, Male, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuronal Plasticity, Physical Fitness, Stress, Mechanical.

  • GONDIN J., GUETTE M., BALLAY Y., MARTIN A. “Neural and muscular changes to detraining after electrostimulation training.”. European journal of applied physiology [En ligne]. May 2006. Vol. 97, n°2, p. 165-173. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0159-z > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : We investigated the effects of 4 weeks of detraining subsequent to an 8-week electrostimulation (ES) training program on changes in muscle strength, neural and muscular properties of the knee extensor muscles. Nine male subjects followed the training program consisting of 32 sessions of isometric ES training over an 8-week period. All subjects were tested before and after 8 weeks of ES training, and were then retested after 4 weeks of detraining. Quadriceps muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was assessed by ultrasonography imaging. The electromyographic (EMG) activity and muscle activation (i.e., by means of the twitch interpolation technique) obtained during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were used to examine neural adaptations. After training, the knee extensor voluntary torque increased significantly by 26%. Torque gains were accompanied by an increase in vastii EMG activity normalized to respective M-wave (+43%), muscle activation (+6%) and quadriceps ACSA (+6%). After detraining, knee extensor MVC, vastii EMG activity, muscle activation and quadriceps ACSA decreased significantly by 9%, 20%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Also, the knee extensor MVC values remained significantly elevated (14%) above baseline levels at the end of the detraining period and this was associated with a larger quadriceps ACSA (+3%) but not with a higher neural activation. We concluded that the voluntary torque losses observed after detraining could be attributed to both neural and muscular alterations. Muscle size preservation could explain the higher knee extensor MVC values observed after the cessation of training compared to those obtained before training, therefore indicating that muscle size changes are slower than neural drive reduction.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Humans, Knee, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuromuscular Junction, Physical Exertion, Quadriceps Muscle, Time Factors, Ultrasonography.

  • GONDIN J., GUETTE M., JUBEAU M., BALLAY Y., MARTIN A. “Central and peripheral contributions to fatigue after electrostimulation training.”. Medicine and science in sports and exercise [En ligne]. June 2006. Vol. 38, n°6, p. 1147-1156. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000222843.04510.ca > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : PURPOSE: We examined the effect of 4 (WK4) and 8 wk (WK8) of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training on both endurance time and mechanisms contributing to task failure. METHODS: Ten males performed a fatiguing isometric contraction with the knee extensor muscles at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until exhaustion before (B), at WK4, and at WK8 of NMES training. The electromyographic (EMG) activity and muscle activation obtained under MVC were recorded before and after the fatiguing task to assess central fatigue. Torque and EMG responses obtained under electrically evoked contractions were examined before and after the fatiguing task to analyze peripheral fatigue. RESULTS: Knee extensor MVC torque increased significantly between B and WK4 (+16%), between WK4 and WK8 (+10%), and between B and WK8 (+26%), which meant that the average target torque sustained during the fatiguing contraction increased between the testing sessions. Endurance time decreased significantly over the three sessions (493+/-101 s at B, 408+/-159 s at WK4, and 338+/-126 s at WK8) despite a similar reduction in knee extensor MVC (approximately 25%). Negative correlations were found between endurance time absolute changes and target torque absolute gains. Average EMG activity of the knee extensor muscles was lower after training, but the mean rate of increase was similar over the three sessions. Single-twitch contractile properties were not affected by the task. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the endurance time was shorter after 4 and 8 wk of NMES training, and this was associated with higher absolute contraction intensity. Despite endurance time reduction, NMES training did not affect the amount of fatigue at exhaustion nor the central and peripheral contributions to fatigue.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Feedback, Femoral Nerve, Humans, Isometric Contraction, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Fatigue, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuromuscular Junction, Physical Endurance, Physical Fitness, Reproducibility of Results, Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted, Time Factors, Torque.

  • GUETTE M., GONDIN J., MARTIN A., PÉROT C., VAN HOECKE J. “Plantar flexion torque as a function of time of day.”. International journal of sports medicine [En ligne]. March 2006. Vol. 27, n°3, p. 171-177. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-837618 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The possible peripheral and/or central origin in the mechanisms responsible for day-time fluctuation in maximal torque of the triceps surae muscle were investigated with a special emphasis on antagonist muscle coactivation. Eleven healthy male subjects (physical education students) took part in this investigation. The electromechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscles were recorded at two different times of day: between 06:00 h and 08:00 h in the morning and between 17:00 h and 19:00 h in the evening. To investigate peripheral mechanisms, the posterior tibial nerve was stimulated at rest, using percutaneous electrical stimuli, to evoke single twitch, double twitch, and maximal tetanic contraction (100 Hz). Maximal voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors was also assessed by means of the relative electromyographic activity of respective agonist and antagonist muscles (soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior). A double twitch was delivered during maximal voluntary plantar flexion to record muscle activation (i.e., interpolated twitch technique). The coactivation level of the tibialis anterior muscle during plantar flexion was calculated. The results indicated a significant decrease in maximal voluntary muscle torque of triceps surae in the evening as compared with the morning (-7.0 %; p < 0.05). Concerning the central command, when extrapolated by the twitch interpolation technique, the decrease in mean activation level of -6.8 % was consistent with the fluctuation in torque (-7.0 %). Soleus muscle electromyographic activity (normalized to the M-wave) showed a significant decline (21.6 %; p < 0.001). Moreover, individual changes in MVC percentage were significantly related to those of normalized electromyographic activity of the soleus muscle (r = 0.688; p < 0.01). Thus, it indicated that the subject's capacity to activate the soleus muscle was affected by the time of day. The coactivation level in the tibialis anterior muscle during plantar flexion did not change significantly in the evening. Concerning peripheral mechanisms, we observed a decrease in maximal M-wave amplitude for soleus and gastrocnemii, associated with unchanged single twitch and tetanus torque. To conclude, impairment in soleus muscle central command seemed to be the mechanism in the origin of torque failure. Such information would be of importance in the investigation of day-time fluctuations in complex motor task performances implicating the triceps surae muscle.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Analysis of Variance, Circadian Rhythm, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Foot, Humans, Male, Muscle, Skeletal, Tibial Nerve, Torque.

  • JUBEAU M., ZORY R., GONDIN J., MARTIN A., MAFFIULETTI N. A. “Late neural adaptations to electrostimulation resistance training of the plantar flexor muscles.”. European journal of applied physiology [En ligne]. September 2006. Vol. 98, n°2, p. 202-211. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0264-z > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The present study aimed to examine early and late neural adaptations to short-term electrostimulation training of the plantar flexor muscles. Changes in triceps surae muscle activation (twitch interpolation), maximal electromyographic (EMG) activity, H-reflex amplitudes and antagonist coactivation were investigated after electrostimulation training (4 weeks) and after 4 weeks of detraining in a group of ten young healthy men. Maximal voluntary contraction torque was significantly higher (P < 0.01) after training (+19.4%) and detraining (+17.2%) with respect to baseline. Activation level, soleus and lateral gastrocnemius EMG normalized to the maximal M-wave significantly increased as a result of training (P < 0.05), and these gains were preserved after detraining, excepted for soleus EMG. Maximal H reflex to maximal M wave ratio increased significantly between baseline and detraining for both soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (P < 0.05). Tibialis anterior coactivation was unchanged after training but significantly decreased after the detraining period (P < 0.01). Short-term electrostimulation resistance training was accompanied by early (increased muscle activation and EMG activity) and late neural adaptations (increased spinal reflex amplitude and decreased coactivation), likely explaining the increase and then the preservation of the maximal voluntary strength. These effects may help in conceiving and programming effective electrostimulation therapy programs for both healthy and immobilized plantar flexor muscles.
    Mots-clés : Adaptation, Physiological, Adult, Ankle Joint, Electric Stimulation, Exercise, Humans, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Neuronal Plasticity, Physical Exertion, Physical Fitness, Reflex, Abnormal.

2005

Journal Article
  • GONDIN J., GUETTE M., BALLAY Y., MARTIN A. “Electromyostimulation training effects on neural drive and muscle architecture.”. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. August 2005. Vol. 37, n°8, p. 1291-1299.
    Résumé : PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 4 and 8 wk of electromyostimulation (EMS) training on both muscular and neural adaptations of the knee extensor muscles. METHODS: Twenty males were divided into the electrostimulated group (EG, N = 12) and the control group (CG, N = 8). The training program consisted of 32 sessions of isometric EMS over an 8-wk period. All subjects were tested at baseline (B) and retested after 4 (WK4) and 8 (WK8) wk of EMS training. The EMG activity and muscle activation obtained under maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) was used to assess neural adaptations. Torque and EMG responses obtained under electrically evoked contractions, muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA), and vastus lateralis (VL) pennation angle, both measured by ultrasonography imaging, were examined to analyze muscular changes. RESULTS: At WK8, knee extensor MVC significantly increased by 27% (P < 0.001) and was accompanied by an increase in muscle activation (+6%, P < 0.01), quadriceps muscle ACSA (+6%, P < 0.001), and VL pennation angle (+14%, P < 0.001). A significant increase in normalized EMG activity of both VL and vastus medialis (VM) muscles (+69 and +39%, respectively, P < 0.001) but not of rectus femoris (RF) muscle was also found at WK8. The ACSA of the VL, VM, and vastus intermedius muscles significantly increased at WK8 (5-8%, P < 0.001) but not at WK4, whereas no changes occurred in the RF muscle. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the voluntary torque gains obtained after EMS training could be attributed to both muscular and neural adaptations. Both changes selectively involved the monoarticular vastii muscles.
    Mots-clés : Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, France, Humans, Male, Muscle, Skeletal, Reproducibility of Results.

  • GUETTE M., GONDIN J., MARTIN A. “Morning to evening changes in the electrical and mechanical properties of human soleus motor units activated by H reflex and M wave.”. European journal of applied physiology [En ligne]. October 2005. Vol. 95, n°4, p. 377-381. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-0023-6 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The aim of the present study was to compare the relative contribution of the soleus motor units (MUs) activated by H and M waves to the plantar-flexion torque in the morning and in the evening. Twelve healthy male subjects (physical education students) took part in this investigation. The electromechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscles were recorded at two different times of day: between 06:00 and 08:00 h and between 17:00 and 19:00 h. Plantar-flexion torque and concomitant electromyographic activity of soleus muscle were assessed under voluntary and evoked conditions. The results indicated a significant decrease in maximal voluntary muscle torque of triceps surae and associated soleus EMG in the evening as compared with the morning. The mean values of MVC ranged from 131.6+/-9.6 N m in the morning to 125.1+/-9.0 N m in the evening. Peak-to-peak values of soleus H (max) and M (max) potentials were comparable in the morning and in the evening (2.97 vs 3.18 mV and 7.95 vs 7.44 mV for H (max) and M (max), respectively). The H (max)/M (max) ratio was not modified between the two experimental test sessions (34.8 vs 41.3%). The peak amplitude of the twitch produced by the H (max) wave (Pt (H max)) decreased significantly. When estimating the mechanical contribution to (Pt (H max)) of the slowest and fastest-twitch MUs reflexively and directly activated, we observed that the contribution of the slowest MUs did not change while those of the fastest decreased significantly in the evening. To conclude, a weaker reflex twitch torque caused by higher fatigue state of the MUs directly activated by the M wave which accompanied H (max) in the evening may be regarded as a possible explanation of the weaker plantar-flexion torque production in the evening.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Electric Stimulation, H-Reflex, Humans, Male, Motor Neurons, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Torque.

  • GUETTE M., GONDIN J., MARTIN A. “Time-of-day effect on the torque and neuromuscular properties of dominant and non-dominant quadriceps femoris.”. Chronobiology international [En ligne]. 2005. Vol. 22, n°3, p. 541-558. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CBI-200062407 > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The study was conducted first, to determine the possibility of a dichotomy between circadian rhythm of maximal torque production of the knee extensors of the dominant and non-dominant legs, and second, to determine whether the possible dichotomy could be linked to a change in the downward drive of the central nervous system and/or to phenomena prevailing at the muscular level. The dominant leg was defined as the one with which subjects spontaneously kick a football. Tests were performed at 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 h. To distinguish the neural and muscular mechanisms that influence muscle strength, the electromyographic and mechanical muscle responses associated with electrically evoked and/or voluntary contractions of the human quadriceps and semi-tendinosus muscles for each leg were recorded and compared. The main finding was an absence of interaction between time-of-day and dominance effects on the torque associated with maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of both quadriceps. A significant time-of-day effect on MVC torque of the knee extensors was observed for the dominant and non-dominant legs when the data were collapsed, with highest values occurring at 18:00 h (p < 0.01). From cosinor analysis, a circadian rhythm was documented (p < 0.001) with the peak (acrophase) estimated at 18:18 +/- 00:12 h and amplitude (one-half the peak-to-trough variation) of 3.3 +/- 1.1%. Independent of the leg tested, peripheral mechanisms demonstrated a significant time-of-day effect (p < 0.05) on the peak-torque of the single and doublet stimulations, with maximal levels attained at 18:00 h. The central activation of the quadriceps muscle of each leg remained unchanged during the day. The present results confirmed previous observations that muscle torque changes in a predictable manner during the 24 h period, and that the changes are linked to modifications prevailing at the muscular, rather than the neural, level. The similar rhythmicity observed in this study between the dominant and non-dominant legs provides evidence that it is not essential to test both legs when simple motor tasks are investigated as a function of the time of day.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Body Temperature, Circadian Rhythm, Electric Stimulation, Electromyography, Humans, Male, Muscle Contraction, Muscle, Skeletal, Thigh, Time Factors, Torque.

2004

Journal Article

  • GONDIN J., GUETTE M., MAFFIULETTI N. A., MARTIN A. “Neural activation of the triceps surae is impaired following 2 weeks of immobilization.”. European journal of applied physiology [En ligne]. December 2004. Vol. 93, n°3, p. 359-365. Disponible sur : < http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1225-z > (consulté le no date)
    Résumé : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 weeks of ankle joint immobilization on triceps surae neural activation, with particular emphasis on the potential differences between the monoarticular soleus and the biarticular gastrocnemius muscles. Seventeen male volunteers were divided into the immobilized group (IG, n = 8) and the control group (CG, n = 9). Elastic adhesive bandages and an ankle stabilization orthosis were used to immobilize the ankle joint only. The plantar flexor torque obtained during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and after single, paired and tetanic stimuli applied at rest was measured. The associated EMG activity from the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was also recorded, and their activation levels were estimated by means of the twitch interpolation technique. After immobilization, triceps surae maximal voluntary torque significantly decreased by 17% (P < 0.001). Strength losses were accompanied by a decrement in activation level (-6%, average of the three techniques used) and in maximal 100 Hz tetanic force (-11%). A significant decrease in the soleus (-22%, P < 0.05) but not in the gastrocnemius EMG activity, normalized to respective M-waves, was also found. It was concluded that the reduced voluntary torque output after immobilization could be attributed to both muscular and neural alterations. These latter selectively involved the monoarticular soleus muscle, while neural drive to the biarticular gastrocnemii, which had not been immobilized in their function as knee flexors, was preserved.
    Mots-clés : Adult, Ankle Joint, Electromyography, Humans, Immobilization, Leg, Male, Muscle, Skeletal, Torque.
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